Enzymatic detection of traumatic brain injury related biomarkers

Brittney A. Cardinell, Jeffrey LaBelle

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Scopus citations


Electrochemical detection methods have been popular in the medical diagnostics field. Several well-known devices such as the self-monitoring blood glucose meter have relied on electrochemical techniques for their sensitivity, and ability to make direct measurements without optical labels. Currently, no point-of-care or handheld diagnostic tool exists to quantify the severity of a traumatic brain injury (TBI). We have shown that enzymatic detection of norepinephrine (NE), a biomarker which can indicate TBI severity, using impedance-based electrochemical techniques can achieve the required sensitivity, ~100 pg/mL. Furthermore, the first steps have been taken to quantify NE in whole blood solutions and to optimize the technique for a handheld device.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages24
StatePublished - 2017

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)10643745



  • Biomarker
  • Biosensor
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • Enzyme
  • Impedance time
  • Norepinephrine
  • Point-of-care technology
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Cardinell, B. A., & LaBelle, J. (2017). Enzymatic detection of traumatic brain injury related biomarkers. In Methods in Molecular Biology (Vol. 1572, pp. 89-112). (Methods in Molecular Biology; Vol. 1572). Humana Press Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6911-1_7