Environmental heterogeneity, bird-mediated directed dispersal, and oak woodland dynamics in Mediterranean Spain

Drew W. Purves, Miguel A. Zavala, Kiona Ogle, Fernando Prieto, José M. Rey Benayas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vegetation dynamics in complex landscapes depend on interactions among environmental heterogeneity, disturbance, habitat fragmentation, and seed dispersal processes. We explore how these features combine to affect the regional abundances and distributions of three Quercus (oak) species in central Spain: Q. faginea (deciduous tree), Q. ilex (evergreen tree), and Q. coccifera (evergreen shrub). We develop and parameterize a stochastic patch occupancy model (SPOM) that, unlike previous SPOMs, includes environmentally driven variation in disturbance and establishment. Dispersal in the model is directed toward local (nearby) suitable habitat patches, following the observed seed-caching behavior of the European Jay. Model parameters were estimated using Bayesian methods and survey data from 12 047 plots. Model simulations were conducted to explore the importance of different dispersal modes (local directed, global directed, local random, global random). The SPOM with local directed dispersal gave a much better fit to the data and reproduced observed regional abundance, abundance-environment correlations, and spatial autocorrelation in abundance for all three species. Model simulations suggest that jay-mediated directed dispersal increases regional abundance and alters species-environment correlations. Local dispersal is estimated to reduce regional abundances, amplify species-environment correlations, and amplify spatial autocorrelation. Parameter estimates and model simulations reveal important species-specific differences in sensitivity to environmental perturbations and dispersal mode. The dominant species Q. ilex is estimated to be highly fecund, but on the edge of its climatic tolerance. Therefore Q. ilex gains little from directed dispersal, suffers little from local dispersal, and is relatively insensitive to changes in habitat cover or disturbance rate; but Q. ilex is highly sensitive to altered drought length. In contrast, the rarest species, Q. coccifera, is well adapted to the climate and soils but has low fecundity; thus, it is highly sensitive to changes in dispersal, habitat cover, and disturbance but insensitive to altered drought length. Finally, Q. faginea is estimated to be both at the edge of its climatic tolerance and to have low fecundity, making it sensitive to all perturbations. Apparently, co-occurring species can exhibit very different interactions among dispersal, environmental characteristics, and physiological tolerances, calling for increased attention to species-specific dynamics in determining regional vegetation responses to anthropogenic perturbations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-97
Number of pages21
JournalEcological Monographs
Volume77
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Ilex
woodlands
woodland
Quercus
Spain
bird
simulation models
birds
autocorrelation
fecundity
habitats
Quercus faginea
drought
Quercus coccifera
vegetation
Quercus ilex
disturbance
Bayesian theory
seed dispersal
habitat fragmentation

Keywords

  • Biogeography
  • Climate change
  • Climate envelope
  • Corvids
  • Dispersal limitation
  • Garrulus
  • Holm oak
  • Iberian peninsular
  • Incidence function
  • Patch model
  • Species migration
  • Zoochory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology

Cite this

Environmental heterogeneity, bird-mediated directed dispersal, and oak woodland dynamics in Mediterranean Spain. / Purves, Drew W.; Zavala, Miguel A.; Ogle, Kiona; Prieto, Fernando; Rey Benayas, José M.

In: Ecological Monographs, Vol. 77, No. 1, 02.2007, p. 77-97.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Purves, Drew W. ; Zavala, Miguel A. ; Ogle, Kiona ; Prieto, Fernando ; Rey Benayas, José M. / Environmental heterogeneity, bird-mediated directed dispersal, and oak woodland dynamics in Mediterranean Spain. In: Ecological Monographs. 2007 ; Vol. 77, No. 1. pp. 77-97.
@article{448cb263a45047fca8b0ef5a70f3de48,
title = "Environmental heterogeneity, bird-mediated directed dispersal, and oak woodland dynamics in Mediterranean Spain",
abstract = "Vegetation dynamics in complex landscapes depend on interactions among environmental heterogeneity, disturbance, habitat fragmentation, and seed dispersal processes. We explore how these features combine to affect the regional abundances and distributions of three Quercus (oak) species in central Spain: Q. faginea (deciduous tree), Q. ilex (evergreen tree), and Q. coccifera (evergreen shrub). We develop and parameterize a stochastic patch occupancy model (SPOM) that, unlike previous SPOMs, includes environmentally driven variation in disturbance and establishment. Dispersal in the model is directed toward local (nearby) suitable habitat patches, following the observed seed-caching behavior of the European Jay. Model parameters were estimated using Bayesian methods and survey data from 12 047 plots. Model simulations were conducted to explore the importance of different dispersal modes (local directed, global directed, local random, global random). The SPOM with local directed dispersal gave a much better fit to the data and reproduced observed regional abundance, abundance-environment correlations, and spatial autocorrelation in abundance for all three species. Model simulations suggest that jay-mediated directed dispersal increases regional abundance and alters species-environment correlations. Local dispersal is estimated to reduce regional abundances, amplify species-environment correlations, and amplify spatial autocorrelation. Parameter estimates and model simulations reveal important species-specific differences in sensitivity to environmental perturbations and dispersal mode. The dominant species Q. ilex is estimated to be highly fecund, but on the edge of its climatic tolerance. Therefore Q. ilex gains little from directed dispersal, suffers little from local dispersal, and is relatively insensitive to changes in habitat cover or disturbance rate; but Q. ilex is highly sensitive to altered drought length. In contrast, the rarest species, Q. coccifera, is well adapted to the climate and soils but has low fecundity; thus, it is highly sensitive to changes in dispersal, habitat cover, and disturbance but insensitive to altered drought length. Finally, Q. faginea is estimated to be both at the edge of its climatic tolerance and to have low fecundity, making it sensitive to all perturbations. Apparently, co-occurring species can exhibit very different interactions among dispersal, environmental characteristics, and physiological tolerances, calling for increased attention to species-specific dynamics in determining regional vegetation responses to anthropogenic perturbations.",
keywords = "Biogeography, Climate change, Climate envelope, Corvids, Dispersal limitation, Garrulus, Holm oak, Iberian peninsular, Incidence function, Patch model, Species migration, Zoochory",
author = "Purves, {Drew W.} and Zavala, {Miguel A.} and Kiona Ogle and Fernando Prieto and {Rey Benayas}, {Jos{\'e} M.}",
year = "2007",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1890/05-1923",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "77",
pages = "77--97",
journal = "Ecological Monographs",
issn = "0012-9615",
publisher = "Ecological Society of America",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Environmental heterogeneity, bird-mediated directed dispersal, and oak woodland dynamics in Mediterranean Spain

AU - Purves, Drew W.

AU - Zavala, Miguel A.

AU - Ogle, Kiona

AU - Prieto, Fernando

AU - Rey Benayas, José M.

PY - 2007/2

Y1 - 2007/2

N2 - Vegetation dynamics in complex landscapes depend on interactions among environmental heterogeneity, disturbance, habitat fragmentation, and seed dispersal processes. We explore how these features combine to affect the regional abundances and distributions of three Quercus (oak) species in central Spain: Q. faginea (deciduous tree), Q. ilex (evergreen tree), and Q. coccifera (evergreen shrub). We develop and parameterize a stochastic patch occupancy model (SPOM) that, unlike previous SPOMs, includes environmentally driven variation in disturbance and establishment. Dispersal in the model is directed toward local (nearby) suitable habitat patches, following the observed seed-caching behavior of the European Jay. Model parameters were estimated using Bayesian methods and survey data from 12 047 plots. Model simulations were conducted to explore the importance of different dispersal modes (local directed, global directed, local random, global random). The SPOM with local directed dispersal gave a much better fit to the data and reproduced observed regional abundance, abundance-environment correlations, and spatial autocorrelation in abundance for all three species. Model simulations suggest that jay-mediated directed dispersal increases regional abundance and alters species-environment correlations. Local dispersal is estimated to reduce regional abundances, amplify species-environment correlations, and amplify spatial autocorrelation. Parameter estimates and model simulations reveal important species-specific differences in sensitivity to environmental perturbations and dispersal mode. The dominant species Q. ilex is estimated to be highly fecund, but on the edge of its climatic tolerance. Therefore Q. ilex gains little from directed dispersal, suffers little from local dispersal, and is relatively insensitive to changes in habitat cover or disturbance rate; but Q. ilex is highly sensitive to altered drought length. In contrast, the rarest species, Q. coccifera, is well adapted to the climate and soils but has low fecundity; thus, it is highly sensitive to changes in dispersal, habitat cover, and disturbance but insensitive to altered drought length. Finally, Q. faginea is estimated to be both at the edge of its climatic tolerance and to have low fecundity, making it sensitive to all perturbations. Apparently, co-occurring species can exhibit very different interactions among dispersal, environmental characteristics, and physiological tolerances, calling for increased attention to species-specific dynamics in determining regional vegetation responses to anthropogenic perturbations.

AB - Vegetation dynamics in complex landscapes depend on interactions among environmental heterogeneity, disturbance, habitat fragmentation, and seed dispersal processes. We explore how these features combine to affect the regional abundances and distributions of three Quercus (oak) species in central Spain: Q. faginea (deciduous tree), Q. ilex (evergreen tree), and Q. coccifera (evergreen shrub). We develop and parameterize a stochastic patch occupancy model (SPOM) that, unlike previous SPOMs, includes environmentally driven variation in disturbance and establishment. Dispersal in the model is directed toward local (nearby) suitable habitat patches, following the observed seed-caching behavior of the European Jay. Model parameters were estimated using Bayesian methods and survey data from 12 047 plots. Model simulations were conducted to explore the importance of different dispersal modes (local directed, global directed, local random, global random). The SPOM with local directed dispersal gave a much better fit to the data and reproduced observed regional abundance, abundance-environment correlations, and spatial autocorrelation in abundance for all three species. Model simulations suggest that jay-mediated directed dispersal increases regional abundance and alters species-environment correlations. Local dispersal is estimated to reduce regional abundances, amplify species-environment correlations, and amplify spatial autocorrelation. Parameter estimates and model simulations reveal important species-specific differences in sensitivity to environmental perturbations and dispersal mode. The dominant species Q. ilex is estimated to be highly fecund, but on the edge of its climatic tolerance. Therefore Q. ilex gains little from directed dispersal, suffers little from local dispersal, and is relatively insensitive to changes in habitat cover or disturbance rate; but Q. ilex is highly sensitive to altered drought length. In contrast, the rarest species, Q. coccifera, is well adapted to the climate and soils but has low fecundity; thus, it is highly sensitive to changes in dispersal, habitat cover, and disturbance but insensitive to altered drought length. Finally, Q. faginea is estimated to be both at the edge of its climatic tolerance and to have low fecundity, making it sensitive to all perturbations. Apparently, co-occurring species can exhibit very different interactions among dispersal, environmental characteristics, and physiological tolerances, calling for increased attention to species-specific dynamics in determining regional vegetation responses to anthropogenic perturbations.

KW - Biogeography

KW - Climate change

KW - Climate envelope

KW - Corvids

KW - Dispersal limitation

KW - Garrulus

KW - Holm oak

KW - Iberian peninsular

KW - Incidence function

KW - Patch model

KW - Species migration

KW - Zoochory

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34247153807&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34247153807&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1890/05-1923

DO - 10.1890/05-1923

M3 - Article

VL - 77

SP - 77

EP - 97

JO - Ecological Monographs

JF - Ecological Monographs

SN - 0012-9615

IS - 1

ER -