Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting with Er- and W-Codoped Bismuth Vanadate with WO3 Heterojunction-Based Two-Dimensional Photoelectrode

Umesh Prasad, Jyoti Prakash, Santosh K. Gupta, Jose Zuniga, Yuanbing Mao, Bruno Azeredo, Arunachala Mada Kannan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A novel two-dimensional (2D) heterojunction photoelectrode composed of WO3 and (Er,W):BiVO4 is proposed for water oxidation with efficient photoinduced charge carrier separation and transfer. Er stoichiometric along with W nonstoichiometric codoping was introduced to simultaneously manage vacancy creation during substitutional doping, enhance light absorption, and reduce overall impedance. It was found that Er3+ is substituted at the Bi3+ sites in the BiVO4 lattice to provide expanded light absorption from 400 to 680 nm. The fabricated WO3/(Er,W):BiVO4 electrode shows photocurrent densities of 4.1 and 7.2 mA cm-2 at 1.23 and 2.3 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE), respectively, under a 1 sun illumination in K2HPO4 electrolyte. This electrode has shown remarkably high charge separation efficiency of 93% at 1.23 V (vs RHE). With the addition of a standard surface catalyst (i.e., Co-Pi), the WO3/(Er,W):BiVO4/Co-Pi electrode exhibits the highest photocurrent of 5.6 ± 0.3 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V (vs RHE), nearing the theoretical limit (i.e., 7.5 mA cm-2) while retaining 98% of the photoelectrochemical cell performance after 3 h. By concomitantly doping the Bi3+ and V5+ sites to enhance absorption, this study demonstrates for the first time a planar WO3/BiVO4 heterojunction that reaches 88% of the record-high performance of its nanostructured counterpart. Through a detailed characterization of the electrodes, it is concluded that the stoichiometric Er and nonstoichiometric W codoping extend light absorption region and improve charge separation efficiency by reducing bulk resistance. The photoactive materials with 2D morphology were synthesized using a facile ultrasonic spray-coating technique without any complex process steps and thus it can be scaled for commercial development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19029-19039
Number of pages11
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume11
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - May 29 2019

Fingerprint

Bismuth
Heterojunctions
Electrodes
Water
Light absorption
Hydrogen
Photocurrents
Doping (additives)
Photoelectrochemical cells
Coating techniques
bismuth vanadium tetraoxide
Charge carriers
Sun
Electrolytes
Vacancies
Lighting
Ultrasonics
Oxidation
Catalysts

Keywords

  • bismuth vanadate
  • heterojunction
  • oxygen evolution
  • photoelectrochemical water splitting
  • ultrasonic spray coating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting with Er- and W-Codoped Bismuth Vanadate with WO3 Heterojunction-Based Two-Dimensional Photoelectrode. / Prasad, Umesh; Prakash, Jyoti; Gupta, Santosh K.; Zuniga, Jose; Mao, Yuanbing; Azeredo, Bruno; Mada Kannan, Arunachala.

In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 11, No. 21, 29.05.2019, p. 19029-19039.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "A novel two-dimensional (2D) heterojunction photoelectrode composed of WO3 and (Er,W):BiVO4 is proposed for water oxidation with efficient photoinduced charge carrier separation and transfer. Er stoichiometric along with W nonstoichiometric codoping was introduced to simultaneously manage vacancy creation during substitutional doping, enhance light absorption, and reduce overall impedance. It was found that Er3+ is substituted at the Bi3+ sites in the BiVO4 lattice to provide expanded light absorption from 400 to 680 nm. The fabricated WO3/(Er,W):BiVO4 electrode shows photocurrent densities of 4.1 and 7.2 mA cm-2 at 1.23 and 2.3 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE), respectively, under a 1 sun illumination in K2HPO4 electrolyte. This electrode has shown remarkably high charge separation efficiency of 93{\%} at 1.23 V (vs RHE). With the addition of a standard surface catalyst (i.e., Co-Pi), the WO3/(Er,W):BiVO4/Co-Pi electrode exhibits the highest photocurrent of 5.6 ± 0.3 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V (vs RHE), nearing the theoretical limit (i.e., 7.5 mA cm-2) while retaining 98{\%} of the photoelectrochemical cell performance after 3 h. By concomitantly doping the Bi3+ and V5+ sites to enhance absorption, this study demonstrates for the first time a planar WO3/BiVO4 heterojunction that reaches 88{\%} of the record-high performance of its nanostructured counterpart. Through a detailed characterization of the electrodes, it is concluded that the stoichiometric Er and nonstoichiometric W codoping extend light absorption region and improve charge separation efficiency by reducing bulk resistance. The photoactive materials with 2D morphology were synthesized using a facile ultrasonic spray-coating technique without any complex process steps and thus it can be scaled for commercial development.",
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AU - Gupta, Santosh K.

AU - Zuniga, Jose

AU - Mao, Yuanbing

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AB - A novel two-dimensional (2D) heterojunction photoelectrode composed of WO3 and (Er,W):BiVO4 is proposed for water oxidation with efficient photoinduced charge carrier separation and transfer. Er stoichiometric along with W nonstoichiometric codoping was introduced to simultaneously manage vacancy creation during substitutional doping, enhance light absorption, and reduce overall impedance. It was found that Er3+ is substituted at the Bi3+ sites in the BiVO4 lattice to provide expanded light absorption from 400 to 680 nm. The fabricated WO3/(Er,W):BiVO4 electrode shows photocurrent densities of 4.1 and 7.2 mA cm-2 at 1.23 and 2.3 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE), respectively, under a 1 sun illumination in K2HPO4 electrolyte. This electrode has shown remarkably high charge separation efficiency of 93% at 1.23 V (vs RHE). With the addition of a standard surface catalyst (i.e., Co-Pi), the WO3/(Er,W):BiVO4/Co-Pi electrode exhibits the highest photocurrent of 5.6 ± 0.3 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V (vs RHE), nearing the theoretical limit (i.e., 7.5 mA cm-2) while retaining 98% of the photoelectrochemical cell performance after 3 h. By concomitantly doping the Bi3+ and V5+ sites to enhance absorption, this study demonstrates for the first time a planar WO3/BiVO4 heterojunction that reaches 88% of the record-high performance of its nanostructured counterpart. Through a detailed characterization of the electrodes, it is concluded that the stoichiometric Er and nonstoichiometric W codoping extend light absorption region and improve charge separation efficiency by reducing bulk resistance. The photoactive materials with 2D morphology were synthesized using a facile ultrasonic spray-coating technique without any complex process steps and thus it can be scaled for commercial development.

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