Enhanced adhesion of copper to dielectrics via titanium and chromium additions and sacrificial reactions

S. W. Russell, S. A. Rafalski, R. L. Spreitzer, J. Li, M. Moinpour, F. Moghadam, Terry Alford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

100 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ti and Cr as both interposed layers and alloying components were found to enhance copper adhesion to dielectrics. Films deposited on SiO2, phosphosilicate glass (PSG) and boronphosphosilicate glass (BPSG) were annealed in 95%Ar-5%H2 over the temperature range 400-600 °C. The force required to separate films from substrates was measured by scratch testing. Optical and scanning electron microscopies provided detection of substrate exposure. In the Cu Ti and Cu Cr bilayer systems the force decreases with temperature on all substrates, generally exhibiting better adhesion on SiO2 than on PSG or BPSG. In the Cu(Ti) and Cu(Cr) alloy systems the force increases with temperature with less systematic difference among the three substrates. These results correlate well with tape testing. Ti and Cr segregate out of the Cu layer and react both with the dielectrics and with the ambient gases, as observed by Rutherford backscattering and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. These reactions appear to improve adhesion; however, only a small amount of this reaction is required for the enhancement to occur. We surmise that stress in the copper and/or voiding at the Cu-dielectric interface may play a role as well. We observe a correlation between adhesion and the degree of Cu texturing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)154-167
Number of pages14
JournalThin Solid Films
Volume262
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 1995

Fingerprint

Chromium
Titanium
Copper
chromium
adhesion
Adhesion
titanium
Glass
copper
glass
Substrates
Texturing
Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy
Testing
Alloying
Temperature
Tapes
tapes
alloying
temperature

Keywords

  • Adhesion
  • Copper
  • Interfaces
  • Metallization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Enhanced adhesion of copper to dielectrics via titanium and chromium additions and sacrificial reactions. / Russell, S. W.; Rafalski, S. A.; Spreitzer, R. L.; Li, J.; Moinpour, M.; Moghadam, F.; Alford, Terry.

In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 262, No. 1-2, 15.06.1995, p. 154-167.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Russell, SW, Rafalski, SA, Spreitzer, RL, Li, J, Moinpour, M, Moghadam, F & Alford, T 1995, 'Enhanced adhesion of copper to dielectrics via titanium and chromium additions and sacrificial reactions', Thin Solid Films, vol. 262, no. 1-2, pp. 154-167. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(94)05812-1
Russell, S. W. ; Rafalski, S. A. ; Spreitzer, R. L. ; Li, J. ; Moinpour, M. ; Moghadam, F. ; Alford, Terry. / Enhanced adhesion of copper to dielectrics via titanium and chromium additions and sacrificial reactions. In: Thin Solid Films. 1995 ; Vol. 262, No. 1-2. pp. 154-167.
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