The rapid development in the field of metabolic engineering has enabled complex modifications of metabolic pathways to generate a diverse product portfolio. Manipulating substrate uptake and product export is an important research area in metabolic engineering. Optimization of transport systems has the potential to enhance microbial production of renewable fuels and chemicals. This chapter comprehensively reviews the transport systems critical for microbial production as well as current genetic engineering strategies to improve transport functions and thus production metrics. In addition, this chapter highlights recent advancements in engineering microbial efflux systems to enhance cellular tolerance to industrially relevant chemical stress. Lastly, future directions to address current technological gaps are discussed.