Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems for high-heat-flux microelectronics

Patrick Phelan, Y. Gupta, H. Tyagi, R. S. Prasher, J. Catano, G. Michna, R. Zhou, J. Wen, M. Jensen, Y. Peles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Increasingly, military and civilian applications of electronics require extremely high-heat fluxes on the order of 1000 W/cm2. Thermal management solutions for these severe operating conditions are subject to a number of constraints, including energy consumption, controllability, and the volume or size of the package. Calculations indicate that the only possible approach to meeting this heat flux condition, while maintaining the chip temperature below 65°C, is to utilize refrigeration. Here, we report an initial thermodynamic optimization of the refrigeration system design. In order to hold the outlet quality of the fluid leaving the evaporator to less than approximately 20%, in order to avoid reaching critical heat flux, the refrigeration system design is dramatically different from typical configurations for household applications. In short, a simple vapor-compression cycle will require excessive energy consumption, largely because of the additional heat required to return the refrigerant to its vapor state before the compressor inlet. A better design is determined to be a "two-loop" cycle, in which the vapor-compression loop is coupled thermally to a pumped loop that directly cools the high-heat-flux chip.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2010

Fingerprint

Refrigeration
microelectronics
Microelectronics
Energy efficiency
Heat flux
heat flux
Vapors
energy consumption
vapors
systems engineering
Energy utilization
Systems analysis
chips
cycles
evaporators
energy
refrigerants
controllability
Refrigerants
Evaporators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems for high-heat-flux microelectronics. / Phelan, Patrick; Gupta, Y.; Tyagi, H.; Prasher, R. S.; Catano, J.; Michna, G.; Zhou, R.; Wen, J.; Jensen, M.; Peles, Y.

In: Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, Vol. 2, No. 3, 09.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Phelan, P, Gupta, Y, Tyagi, H, Prasher, RS, Catano, J, Michna, G, Zhou, R, Wen, J, Jensen, M & Peles, Y 2010, 'Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems for high-heat-flux microelectronics', Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, vol. 2, no. 3. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4003041
Phelan, Patrick ; Gupta, Y. ; Tyagi, H. ; Prasher, R. S. ; Catano, J. ; Michna, G. ; Zhou, R. ; Wen, J. ; Jensen, M. ; Peles, Y. / Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems for high-heat-flux microelectronics. In: Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications. 2010 ; Vol. 2, No. 3.
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