Empowering Teachers With Low-Intensity Strategies to Support Instruction: Implementing Across-Activity Choices During Third-Grade Reading Instruction

Robin Parks Ennis, Kathleen Lynne Lane, Wendy Oakes, Sarah Cole Flemming

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


Students with and at-risk for academic and behavioral challenges often have low levels of academic engagement. Providing instructional choice is one way to increase engagement in the classroom. In this study, we replicated and extended previous inquiry by investigating the effects of across-activity choices offered by third-grade teachers during reading instruction to participating students with behavioral (one with internalizing and two with internalizing and externalizing patterns) and academic needs. Using a standardized professional development module, teachers learned to implement instructional choice during reading instruction while collecting direct observation data on a student’s academic engagement. Teachers implemented practices with integrity and collected momentary time sampling data for one student in their classroom with high levels of reliability. Results of a withdrawal design indicated a functional relation between the introduction of instructional choice and increases in the academic engagement for the three students. Teachers and students rated the intervention goals, procedures, and outcomes as acceptable. Limitations and future directions are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Positive Behavior Interventions
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019



  • challenging behavior
  • classroom interventions
  • positive behavior supports
  • school and community inclusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Applied Psychology

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