Empirical studies of design thinking: Past, present, future

Jonathan Cagan, Mahmoud Dinar, Jami J. Shah, Larry Leifer, Julie Linsey, Steven M. Smith, Noe Vargas-Hernandez

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Empirical methods used for studying design thinking have included verbal protocols, case studies, and controlled experiments. Studies have looked at the role of design methods, strategies, tools, environment, experience, and group dynamics. Early empirical studies were casual and exploratory with loosely defined objectives and informal analysis methods. Current studies have become more formal, factor controlled, aiming at hypothesis testing, using statistical DOE and analysis methods such as ANOVA. Popular pursuits include comparison of experts and novices, identifying and overcoming fixation, role of analogies, effectiveness of ideation methods, and other various tools. A variety of data may be collected, related to both the process and the outcome (designs).There are still no standards for designing, collecting and analyzing data, partly due to the lack of cognitive models and theories of design thinking. Data analysis is tedious and the rate of discoveries has been slow. Future studies may need to develop computer based data collection and automated analyses, which may facilitate collection of massive amounts of data with the potential of rapid advancement of the rate of discoveries and development of cognitive models of design thinking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
Volume5
ISBN (Print)9780791855928
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013
EventASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC/CIE 2013 - Portland, OR, United States
Duration: Aug 4 2013Aug 7 2013

Other

OtherASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC/CIE 2013
CountryUnited States
CityPortland, OR
Period8/4/138/7/13

Fingerprint

Empirical Study
Cognitive Models
Pursuit
Fixation
Hypothesis Testing
Design Method
Analogy
Data analysis
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Design
Experiment
Testing
Experiments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Modeling and Simulation

Cite this

Cagan, J., Dinar, M., Shah, J. J., Leifer, L., Linsey, J., Smith, S. M., & Vargas-Hernandez, N. (2013). Empirical studies of design thinking: Past, present, future. In Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference (Vol. 5). [V005T06A020] American Society of Mechanical Engineers. https://doi.org/10.1115/DETC2013-13302

Empirical studies of design thinking : Past, present, future. / Cagan, Jonathan; Dinar, Mahmoud; Shah, Jami J.; Leifer, Larry; Linsey, Julie; Smith, Steven M.; Vargas-Hernandez, Noe.

Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference. Vol. 5 American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2013. V005T06A020.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Cagan, J, Dinar, M, Shah, JJ, Leifer, L, Linsey, J, Smith, SM & Vargas-Hernandez, N 2013, Empirical studies of design thinking: Past, present, future. in Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference. vol. 5, V005T06A020, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC/CIE 2013, Portland, OR, United States, 8/4/13. https://doi.org/10.1115/DETC2013-13302
Cagan J, Dinar M, Shah JJ, Leifer L, Linsey J, Smith SM et al. Empirical studies of design thinking: Past, present, future. In Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference. Vol. 5. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2013. V005T06A020 https://doi.org/10.1115/DETC2013-13302
Cagan, Jonathan ; Dinar, Mahmoud ; Shah, Jami J. ; Leifer, Larry ; Linsey, Julie ; Smith, Steven M. ; Vargas-Hernandez, Noe. / Empirical studies of design thinking : Past, present, future. Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference. Vol. 5 American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2013.
@inproceedings{0cd94c2d3fd74858aaecb5ad499bfa48,
title = "Empirical studies of design thinking: Past, present, future",
abstract = "Empirical methods used for studying design thinking have included verbal protocols, case studies, and controlled experiments. Studies have looked at the role of design methods, strategies, tools, environment, experience, and group dynamics. Early empirical studies were casual and exploratory with loosely defined objectives and informal analysis methods. Current studies have become more formal, factor controlled, aiming at hypothesis testing, using statistical DOE and analysis methods such as ANOVA. Popular pursuits include comparison of experts and novices, identifying and overcoming fixation, role of analogies, effectiveness of ideation methods, and other various tools. A variety of data may be collected, related to both the process and the outcome (designs).There are still no standards for designing, collecting and analyzing data, partly due to the lack of cognitive models and theories of design thinking. Data analysis is tedious and the rate of discoveries has been slow. Future studies may need to develop computer based data collection and automated analyses, which may facilitate collection of massive amounts of data with the potential of rapid advancement of the rate of discoveries and development of cognitive models of design thinking.",
author = "Jonathan Cagan and Mahmoud Dinar and Shah, {Jami J.} and Larry Leifer and Julie Linsey and Smith, {Steven M.} and Noe Vargas-Hernandez",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1115/DETC2013-13302",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780791855928",
volume = "5",
booktitle = "Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference",
publisher = "American Society of Mechanical Engineers",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Empirical studies of design thinking

T2 - Past, present, future

AU - Cagan, Jonathan

AU - Dinar, Mahmoud

AU - Shah, Jami J.

AU - Leifer, Larry

AU - Linsey, Julie

AU - Smith, Steven M.

AU - Vargas-Hernandez, Noe

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Empirical methods used for studying design thinking have included verbal protocols, case studies, and controlled experiments. Studies have looked at the role of design methods, strategies, tools, environment, experience, and group dynamics. Early empirical studies were casual and exploratory with loosely defined objectives and informal analysis methods. Current studies have become more formal, factor controlled, aiming at hypothesis testing, using statistical DOE and analysis methods such as ANOVA. Popular pursuits include comparison of experts and novices, identifying and overcoming fixation, role of analogies, effectiveness of ideation methods, and other various tools. A variety of data may be collected, related to both the process and the outcome (designs).There are still no standards for designing, collecting and analyzing data, partly due to the lack of cognitive models and theories of design thinking. Data analysis is tedious and the rate of discoveries has been slow. Future studies may need to develop computer based data collection and automated analyses, which may facilitate collection of massive amounts of data with the potential of rapid advancement of the rate of discoveries and development of cognitive models of design thinking.

AB - Empirical methods used for studying design thinking have included verbal protocols, case studies, and controlled experiments. Studies have looked at the role of design methods, strategies, tools, environment, experience, and group dynamics. Early empirical studies were casual and exploratory with loosely defined objectives and informal analysis methods. Current studies have become more formal, factor controlled, aiming at hypothesis testing, using statistical DOE and analysis methods such as ANOVA. Popular pursuits include comparison of experts and novices, identifying and overcoming fixation, role of analogies, effectiveness of ideation methods, and other various tools. A variety of data may be collected, related to both the process and the outcome (designs).There are still no standards for designing, collecting and analyzing data, partly due to the lack of cognitive models and theories of design thinking. Data analysis is tedious and the rate of discoveries has been slow. Future studies may need to develop computer based data collection and automated analyses, which may facilitate collection of massive amounts of data with the potential of rapid advancement of the rate of discoveries and development of cognitive models of design thinking.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84896914335&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84896914335&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1115/DETC2013-13302

DO - 10.1115/DETC2013-13302

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:84896914335

SN - 9780791855928

VL - 5

BT - Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference

PB - American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ER -