Empirical studies of design thinking: Past, present, future

Jonathan Cagan, Mahmoud Dinar, Jami J. Shah, Larry Leifer, Julie Linsey, Steven M. Smith, Noe Vargas-Hernandez

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Empirical methods used for studying design thinking have included verbal protocols, case studies, and controlled experiments. Studies have looked at the role of design methods, strategies, tools, environment, experience, and group dynamics. Early empirical studies were casual and exploratory with loosely defined objectives and informal analysis methods. Current studies have become more formal, factor controlled, aiming at hypothesis testing, using statistical DOE and analysis methods such as ANOVA. Popular pursuits include comparison of experts and novices, identifying and overcoming fixation, role of analogies, effectiveness of ideation methods, and other various tools. A variety of data may be collected, related to both the process and the outcome (designs).There are still no standards for designing, collecting and analyzing data, partly due to the lack of cognitive models and theories of design thinking. Data analysis is tedious and the rate of discoveries has been slow. Future studies may need to develop computer based data collection and automated analyses, which may facilitate collection of massive amounts of data with the potential of rapid advancement of the rate of discoveries and development of cognitive models of design thinking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication25th International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology; ASME 2013 Power Transmission and Gearing Conference
PublisherAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
ISBN (Print)9780791855928
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
EventASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC/CIE 2013 - Portland, OR, United States
Duration: Aug 4 2013Aug 7 2013

Publication series

NameProceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference
Volume5

Other

OtherASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC/CIE 2013
CountryUnited States
CityPortland, OR
Period8/4/138/7/13

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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