Elementary Teachers’ Perceptions of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Model of Prevention

Holly M. Menzies, Wendy Peia Oakes, Kathleen Lynne Lane, David James Royer, Emily D. Cantwell, Eric Alan Common, Mark Buckman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined perceptions of teachers who implemented a tiered system of support, the comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered (Ci3T) model of prevention. We reported findings of four focus groups with a total of 18 elementary teachers who implemented Ci3T for 2 years. While the Ci3T model comprised elements addressing academics, behavior, and social-emotional learning, teachers were predominately concerned with issues related to students’ behavior. Teachers reported difficulty moving from reactive to proactive classroom management approaches theoretically grounded in behavioral principles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalRemedial and Special Education
StateAccepted/In press - 2019


  • comprehensive integrated
  • discipline
  • multitiered systems of support
  • punishment
  • qualitative study
  • reinforcement
  • school reform
  • three-tiered model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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