Intraventricular haemorrhage is a common cause of death in premature human infants. As preventative measures and treatments become available, a method for monitoring and detection is required. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a viable monitoring method compared to modalities such as ultrasound, MRI or CT because of its low cost and contrast sensitivity to blood. However, its sensitivity to blood may be obscured by the low conductivity skull, high conductivity cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and shape changes in the head and body. We estimated the sensitivity of three 16-electrode and impedance measurement configurations to bleeding using both idealized spherical and realistic geometry three-dimensional finite element models of the neonatal head. Sensitivity distribution responses to alterations in skull composition as well as introduction of conductivity anomalies were determined. Of the three patterns tested, a measurement scheme that employed electrodes at locations based on the 10-20 EEG layout, and impedance measurements involving current return over the anterior fontanelle produced superior distinguishabilities in regions near the lateral ventricles. This configuration also showed strongly improved sensitivities and selectivities when skull composition was varied to include the anterior fontanelle. A pattern using electrodes placed in a ring about the equator of the model had similar sensitivities but performed worse than the EEG layout in terms of selectivity. The third pattern performed worse than either the Ring or EEG-based patterns in terms of sensitivity. The overall performance of the EEG-based pattern on a spherical homogeneous model was maintained in a sensitivity matrix calculated using a homogeneous realistic geometry model.
- Electrical impedance tomography
- Intraventricular haemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Physiology (medical)