Over the past decade, rechargeable batteries based on lithium metal ion chemistries have enabled the practical development of many new products and technologies. Today, Li-ion batteries are often the primary means of providing electrical power to a diverse and growing number of devices, from mobile phones to electric vehicles. Despite many advances, Li-ion battery technologies suffer from some limitations that can prevent their use in emerging market sectors such as wearables, IoT, and grid-scale energy storage. While still in the research and development phase, it is anticipated that divalent metal-ion battery chemistries based on zinc or magnesium will present viable alternatives to conventional lithium-ion cells in these markets. Lithium ion batteries have a high theoretical gravimetric capacity of 3829mAh/g but only a modest volumetric capacity of 2044mAh/cm3. By comparison, divalent batteries based on zinc or magnesium ions have theoretical volumetric capacities of 5854mAh/cm3 and 3882mAh/cm3 respectively. Volumetric capacity is especially important in IoT devices and wearables, where thin, flexible batteries which can cover large areas are ideal. In addition to a somewhat low volumetric capacity, lithium is far less common in the earth's crust than magnesium or zinc and possesses higher reactivity. Because of this, lithium-ion batteries are anticipated to be less environmentally friendly and cost effective than divalent metal-ion batteries in applications requiring many large battery cells. In this proceeding, we study the components of an experimental magnesium ion half-cell constructed from solid, flexible materials. A magnesium-ion cell was chosen due to its low material cost, good theoretical volumetric capacity, simple fabrication steps, and separator-free reaction chemistry. Flexible, insertion-type anodes and cathodes were fabricated using bismuth nanotubes and tungsten disulfide respectively. A polymer-based electrolyte made of PVDF-HFP and magnesium perchlorate was chosen for its demonstrated high ionic conductivity and mechanical flexibility. Each interface of the half-cell was characterized though the use of cyclic voltammetry. Cell fabrication, component/interface electrochemistry, electrode materials and packaging, will be described in detail.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings - IEEE 68th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, ECTC 2018
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9781538649985
StatePublished - Aug 7 2018
Event68th IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference, ECTC 2018 - San Diego, United States
Duration: May 29 2018Jun 1 2018


Other68th IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference, ECTC 2018
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego


  • Battery
  • Bi
  • Cyclic Voltammetry
  • Flexible
  • Mg
  • Polymer
  • WS2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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