Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators

Yu Yao, Raji Shankar, Mikhail A. Kats, Yi Song, Jing Kong, Marko Loncar, Federico Capasso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

310 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dynamically reconfigurable metasurfaces open up unprecedented opportunities in applications such as high capacity communications, dynamic beam shaping, hyperspectral imaging, and adaptive optics. The realization of high performance metasurface-based devices remains a great challenge due to very limited tuning ranges and modulation depths. Here we show that a widely tunable metasurface composed of optical antennas on graphene can be incorporated into a subwavelength-thick optical cavity to create an electrically tunable perfect absorber. By switching the absorber in and out of the critical coupling condition via the gate voltage applied on graphene, a modulation depth of up to 100% can be achieved. In particular, we demonstrated ultrathin (thickness <λ0/10) high speed (up to 20 GHz) optical modulators over a broad wavelength range (5-7 μm). The operating wavelength can be scaled from the near-infrared to the terahertz by simply tailoring the metasurface and cavity dimensions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6526-6532
Number of pages7
JournalNano Letters
Volume14
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 12 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Graphite
Light modulators
Graphene
modulators
absorbers
graphene
Modulation
Infrared radiation
modulation
Wavelength
cavities
Adaptive optics
adaptive optics
wavelengths
antennas
Tuning
communication
tuning
high speed
Antennas

Keywords

  • electrically tunable
  • graphene
  • Metasurface perfect absorbers
  • mid-infrared optoelectronics
  • optical modulators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Yao, Y., Shankar, R., Kats, M. A., Song, Y., Kong, J., Loncar, M., & Capasso, F. (2014). Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators. Nano Letters, 14(11), 6526-6532. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl503104n

Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators. / Yao, Yu; Shankar, Raji; Kats, Mikhail A.; Song, Yi; Kong, Jing; Loncar, Marko; Capasso, Federico.

In: Nano Letters, Vol. 14, No. 11, 12.11.2014, p. 6526-6532.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yao, Y, Shankar, R, Kats, MA, Song, Y, Kong, J, Loncar, M & Capasso, F 2014, 'Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators', Nano Letters, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 6526-6532. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl503104n
Yao, Yu ; Shankar, Raji ; Kats, Mikhail A. ; Song, Yi ; Kong, Jing ; Loncar, Marko ; Capasso, Federico. / Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators. In: Nano Letters. 2014 ; Vol. 14, No. 11. pp. 6526-6532.
@article{d39ad149138643f6ad282e3da35d69a5,
title = "Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators",
abstract = "Dynamically reconfigurable metasurfaces open up unprecedented opportunities in applications such as high capacity communications, dynamic beam shaping, hyperspectral imaging, and adaptive optics. The realization of high performance metasurface-based devices remains a great challenge due to very limited tuning ranges and modulation depths. Here we show that a widely tunable metasurface composed of optical antennas on graphene can be incorporated into a subwavelength-thick optical cavity to create an electrically tunable perfect absorber. By switching the absorber in and out of the critical coupling condition via the gate voltage applied on graphene, a modulation depth of up to 100{\%} can be achieved. In particular, we demonstrated ultrathin (thickness <λ0/10) high speed (up to 20 GHz) optical modulators over a broad wavelength range (5-7 μm). The operating wavelength can be scaled from the near-infrared to the terahertz by simply tailoring the metasurface and cavity dimensions.",
keywords = "electrically tunable, graphene, Metasurface perfect absorbers, mid-infrared optoelectronics, optical modulators",
author = "Yu Yao and Raji Shankar and Kats, {Mikhail A.} and Yi Song and Jing Kong and Marko Loncar and Federico Capasso",
year = "2014",
month = "11",
day = "12",
doi = "10.1021/nl503104n",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "6526--6532",
journal = "Nano Letters",
issn = "1530-6984",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators

AU - Yao, Yu

AU - Shankar, Raji

AU - Kats, Mikhail A.

AU - Song, Yi

AU - Kong, Jing

AU - Loncar, Marko

AU - Capasso, Federico

PY - 2014/11/12

Y1 - 2014/11/12

N2 - Dynamically reconfigurable metasurfaces open up unprecedented opportunities in applications such as high capacity communications, dynamic beam shaping, hyperspectral imaging, and adaptive optics. The realization of high performance metasurface-based devices remains a great challenge due to very limited tuning ranges and modulation depths. Here we show that a widely tunable metasurface composed of optical antennas on graphene can be incorporated into a subwavelength-thick optical cavity to create an electrically tunable perfect absorber. By switching the absorber in and out of the critical coupling condition via the gate voltage applied on graphene, a modulation depth of up to 100% can be achieved. In particular, we demonstrated ultrathin (thickness <λ0/10) high speed (up to 20 GHz) optical modulators over a broad wavelength range (5-7 μm). The operating wavelength can be scaled from the near-infrared to the terahertz by simply tailoring the metasurface and cavity dimensions.

AB - Dynamically reconfigurable metasurfaces open up unprecedented opportunities in applications such as high capacity communications, dynamic beam shaping, hyperspectral imaging, and adaptive optics. The realization of high performance metasurface-based devices remains a great challenge due to very limited tuning ranges and modulation depths. Here we show that a widely tunable metasurface composed of optical antennas on graphene can be incorporated into a subwavelength-thick optical cavity to create an electrically tunable perfect absorber. By switching the absorber in and out of the critical coupling condition via the gate voltage applied on graphene, a modulation depth of up to 100% can be achieved. In particular, we demonstrated ultrathin (thickness <λ0/10) high speed (up to 20 GHz) optical modulators over a broad wavelength range (5-7 μm). The operating wavelength can be scaled from the near-infrared to the terahertz by simply tailoring the metasurface and cavity dimensions.

KW - electrically tunable

KW - graphene

KW - Metasurface perfect absorbers

KW - mid-infrared optoelectronics

KW - optical modulators

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84910001723&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84910001723&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/nl503104n

DO - 10.1021/nl503104n

M3 - Article

C2 - 25310847

AN - SCOPUS:84910001723

VL - 14

SP - 6526

EP - 6532

JO - Nano Letters

JF - Nano Letters

SN - 1530-6984

IS - 11

ER -