For accommodating more electric vehicles (EVs) to battle against fossil fuel emission, the problem of charging station placement is inevitable and could be costly if done improperly. Research considers a general setup using conditions such as driving ranges for planning. However, most of the EV growths in the next decades will happen in urban areas where driving range is not the biggest concern. For such a need, we consider several practical aspects of urban systems, such as voltage regulation cost and protection device upgrade resulting from the large integration of EVs. Notably, our diversified objective can reveal the trade-off between different factors in different cities worldwide. To understand the global optimum of large-scale analysis, we studied each feature to preserve the problem convexity. Our sensitivity analysis before and after convexification shows that our approach is not only universally applicable but also has a small approximation error for prioritizing the most urgent constraint in a specific setup. Finally, numerical results demonstrate the trade-off, the relationship between different factors and the global objective, and the small approximation error. A unique observation in this paper shows the importance of incorporating the protection device upgrade in urban system planning on charging stations.
- distribution grid
- Electric vehicle charging station
- protective devices upgrade
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science(all)