Effortful control is associated with children's school functioning via learning-related behaviors

Noelia Sánchez-Pérez, Luis J. Fuentes, Nancy Eisenberg, Carmen González-Salinas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The goal of the current study was to identify factors that contribute to individual differences in school functioning. We proposed a model including direct effects of Effortful Control (EC) on Spanish 6- to 12-year olds' (N = 142) academic achievement and social adaptation at school, with these relations partially mediated by learning-related behaviors (LRBs). Parents rated children's EC; teachers reported children's LRBs and children' social adaptation in school; children' social preference was assessed through classmates' nominations. Children's academic achievement was measured through standard tests and grades. Analyses were run using structural equation models, controlling by gender, intelligence, age, socioeconomic status, and school. EC was positively and directly related to social adaptation in school. EC was also indirectly related to academic achievement and social adaptation through LRBs. The findings highlight the potential relevance of children's EC and LRBs for adjustment in elementary school.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-88
Number of pages11
JournalLearning and Individual Differences
StatePublished - Apr 2018


  • Academic achievement
  • Childhood
  • Effortful control
  • Elementary school
  • Learning-related behaviors
  • Social adaptation
  • Temperament

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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