Effortful Control and Impulsivity as Concurrent and Longitudinal Predictors of Academic Achievement

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Abstract

The goal of this study was to test if both effortful control (EC) and impulsivity, a reactive index of temperament, uniquely predict adolescents' academic achievement, concurrently and longitudinally (Time 1: N = 168, x- age = 12 years). At Time 1, parents and teachers reported on students' EC and impulsivity. At both time points, spaced 2 years apart, parents and teachers reported on students' achievement. In a concurrent regression, both EC and impulsivity were positively related to achievement. At T1, there was evidence of a nonlinear relation between impulsivity and achievement, and the shape of the quadratic was dependent on if EC was simultaneously considered. Results from a longitudinal analysis demonstrated that although parent-reported impulsivity was generally negatively correlated with achievement, EC, but not impulsivity, was prospectively, uniquely related to achievement. The discussion highlights the value of considering adolescents' EC and impulsivity in models of school success.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)946-972
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Early Adolescence
Volume33
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2013

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Keywords

  • academic achievement
  • effortful control
  • impulsivity
  • longitudinal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

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