Effects of testosterone and photoperiodic condition on song production and vocal control region volumes in adult male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)

Stephanie M. Dloniak, Pierre Deviche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In seasonally breeding male oscines, song learning and expression are controlled by brain regions (vocal control regions, VCRs) that exhibit seasonal neural plasticity in adulthood. Several VCRs contain androgen receptors, and gonadal androgens play important roles in the control of seasonal structural and functional changes of VCRs. Recent studies also found that adult VCRs are influenced by factors other than gonadal hormones, including photoperiod, but the relative importance of these factors and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the contributions of photoperiod and testicular androgens to the regulation of VCR volumes and to the control of song expression in adult dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis. Exposing castrated (CX) photosensitive males to long days (LD) enhanced their high vocal center (HVc) volumes compared to those of males held on short days (SD). These volumes were not further increased by concurrent testosterone (T) treatment, revealing a marked and gonadal androgen-independent stimulatory influence of photoperiod on the size of this brain region. HVc sizes were smaller in LD-exposed photorefractory than photosensitive males irrespective of whether birds were intact or had been castrated before photoperiodic manipulations, but HVc sizes increased in response to T treatment in intact photorefractory males. Thus, LD exposure can increase HVc volumes in the absence of gonadal T, but large volume induction in photorefractory males requires elevated plasma T levels. Testosterone treatment of SD-exposed photosensitive males increased HVc, but not Area X, MAN, or RA volumes. Only T-treated males sang and this treatment given to castrates was equally effective behaviorally when administered to photosensitive, photostimulated, or photorefractory juncos. This result indicates that the stimulating influence of LD exposure on HVc volumes is insufficient to induce song in the absence of elevated plasma T levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-105
Number of pages11
JournalHormones and Behavior
Volume39
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

High Vocal Center
Music
Testosterone
Photoperiod
Androgens
Gonadal Hormones
Songbirds
Neuronal Plasticity
Brain
Androgen Receptors
Birds
Breeding
Therapeutics
Learning

Keywords

  • Androgen
  • Neural plasticity
  • Oscine
  • Photorefractory
  • Photosensitive
  • Photostimulated
  • Reproduction
  • Song system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

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title = "Effects of testosterone and photoperiodic condition on song production and vocal control region volumes in adult male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)",
abstract = "In seasonally breeding male oscines, song learning and expression are controlled by brain regions (vocal control regions, VCRs) that exhibit seasonal neural plasticity in adulthood. Several VCRs contain androgen receptors, and gonadal androgens play important roles in the control of seasonal structural and functional changes of VCRs. Recent studies also found that adult VCRs are influenced by factors other than gonadal hormones, including photoperiod, but the relative importance of these factors and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the contributions of photoperiod and testicular androgens to the regulation of VCR volumes and to the control of song expression in adult dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis. Exposing castrated (CX) photosensitive males to long days (LD) enhanced their high vocal center (HVc) volumes compared to those of males held on short days (SD). These volumes were not further increased by concurrent testosterone (T) treatment, revealing a marked and gonadal androgen-independent stimulatory influence of photoperiod on the size of this brain region. HVc sizes were smaller in LD-exposed photorefractory than photosensitive males irrespective of whether birds were intact or had been castrated before photoperiodic manipulations, but HVc sizes increased in response to T treatment in intact photorefractory males. Thus, LD exposure can increase HVc volumes in the absence of gonadal T, but large volume induction in photorefractory males requires elevated plasma T levels. Testosterone treatment of SD-exposed photosensitive males increased HVc, but not Area X, MAN, or RA volumes. Only T-treated males sang and this treatment given to castrates was equally effective behaviorally when administered to photosensitive, photostimulated, or photorefractory juncos. This result indicates that the stimulating influence of LD exposure on HVc volumes is insufficient to induce song in the absence of elevated plasma T levels.",
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T1 - Effects of testosterone and photoperiodic condition on song production and vocal control region volumes in adult male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis)

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AU - Deviche, Pierre

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N2 - In seasonally breeding male oscines, song learning and expression are controlled by brain regions (vocal control regions, VCRs) that exhibit seasonal neural plasticity in adulthood. Several VCRs contain androgen receptors, and gonadal androgens play important roles in the control of seasonal structural and functional changes of VCRs. Recent studies also found that adult VCRs are influenced by factors other than gonadal hormones, including photoperiod, but the relative importance of these factors and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the contributions of photoperiod and testicular androgens to the regulation of VCR volumes and to the control of song expression in adult dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis. Exposing castrated (CX) photosensitive males to long days (LD) enhanced their high vocal center (HVc) volumes compared to those of males held on short days (SD). These volumes were not further increased by concurrent testosterone (T) treatment, revealing a marked and gonadal androgen-independent stimulatory influence of photoperiod on the size of this brain region. HVc sizes were smaller in LD-exposed photorefractory than photosensitive males irrespective of whether birds were intact or had been castrated before photoperiodic manipulations, but HVc sizes increased in response to T treatment in intact photorefractory males. Thus, LD exposure can increase HVc volumes in the absence of gonadal T, but large volume induction in photorefractory males requires elevated plasma T levels. Testosterone treatment of SD-exposed photosensitive males increased HVc, but not Area X, MAN, or RA volumes. Only T-treated males sang and this treatment given to castrates was equally effective behaviorally when administered to photosensitive, photostimulated, or photorefractory juncos. This result indicates that the stimulating influence of LD exposure on HVc volumes is insufficient to induce song in the absence of elevated plasma T levels.

AB - In seasonally breeding male oscines, song learning and expression are controlled by brain regions (vocal control regions, VCRs) that exhibit seasonal neural plasticity in adulthood. Several VCRs contain androgen receptors, and gonadal androgens play important roles in the control of seasonal structural and functional changes of VCRs. Recent studies also found that adult VCRs are influenced by factors other than gonadal hormones, including photoperiod, but the relative importance of these factors and their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the contributions of photoperiod and testicular androgens to the regulation of VCR volumes and to the control of song expression in adult dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis. Exposing castrated (CX) photosensitive males to long days (LD) enhanced their high vocal center (HVc) volumes compared to those of males held on short days (SD). These volumes were not further increased by concurrent testosterone (T) treatment, revealing a marked and gonadal androgen-independent stimulatory influence of photoperiod on the size of this brain region. HVc sizes were smaller in LD-exposed photorefractory than photosensitive males irrespective of whether birds were intact or had been castrated before photoperiodic manipulations, but HVc sizes increased in response to T treatment in intact photorefractory males. Thus, LD exposure can increase HVc volumes in the absence of gonadal T, but large volume induction in photorefractory males requires elevated plasma T levels. Testosterone treatment of SD-exposed photosensitive males increased HVc, but not Area X, MAN, or RA volumes. Only T-treated males sang and this treatment given to castrates was equally effective behaviorally when administered to photosensitive, photostimulated, or photorefractory juncos. This result indicates that the stimulating influence of LD exposure on HVc volumes is insufficient to induce song in the absence of elevated plasma T levels.

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KW - Neural plasticity

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KW - Photosensitive

KW - Photostimulated

KW - Reproduction

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