The performance of photoinjectors is limited by the lowest value of the mean transverse energy of the electrons obtained from photocathodes. The factors that influence the mean transverse energy are poorly understood. In this paper, we develop models to calculate the effect of spatial work-function variations and subnanometer-scale roughness and surface defects on the mean transverse energy. We show that these can limit the lowest value of mean transverse energy achieved and that atomically perfect surfaces will be required to further reduce the mean transverse energy obtained from photocathodes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)