Effects of sex and menstrual cycle on volume-regulatory responses to 24-h fluid restriction

Gabrielle E.W. Giersch, Abigail T. Colburn, Margaret C. Morrissey, Cody R. Butler, Michaela L. Pruchnicki, Stavros A. Kavouras, Nisha Charkoudian, Douglas J. Casa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Reproductive hormones have significant nonreproductive physiological effects, including altering fluid regulation. Our purpose was to explore the impact of sex and menstrual cycle (MC) phase on volume-regulatory responses to 24-h fluid restriction (24-h FR). Participants (men: n = 12, 20 ± 2 yr; women: n = 10, 20 ± 1 yr) were assigned two randomized and counterbalanced fluid prescriptions [Euhy: Euhydrated, urine specific gravity (USG) < 1.020; Dehy: 24-h FR, USG > 1.020]. Men completed both (MEuhy, MDehy), while women completed both in the late-follicular (days 10-13; FDehy, FEuhy) and midluteal (days 18-22; LDehy, LEuhy) phases. We measured body mass, plasma and urine osmolality (Posm, Uosm), urine specific gravity (USG), urine color (Ucol), and serum copeptin; 24-h FR yielded mild dehydration without influence of sex or MC (P > 0.05). Copeptin increased in men following Dehy (pre: 8.2 ± 5.2, post: 15.8 ± 12.6, P = 0.04) but not in women (FDehy pre: 4.3 ± 1.6, post: 10.5 ± 6.9, P = 0.06; LDehy pre: 5.6 ± 3.5, post: 10.4 ± 6.2, P = 0.16). In FDehy, Posm increased following FR (pre: 288 ± 2, post: 292 ± 1, P = 0.03) but not in men (pre: 292 ± 3, post: 293 ± 2, P = 0.46). No MC differences were observed between body mass loss, Posm, Uosm, USG, and copeptin (P > 0.05). These results suggest that volume-regulatory responses to 24-h FR were present in men but not in women, without apparent effects of the menstrual cycle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R560-R565
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 5 2020


  • Body mass loss
  • Copeptin
  • Estrogen
  • Sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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