Effects of indulgent food snacking, with and without exercise training, on body weight, fat mass, and cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight and obese men

Wesley J. Tucker, Catherine L. Jarrett, Andrew C. D’Lugos, Siddhartha S. Angadi, Glenn A. Gaesser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We hypothesized that exercise training would prevent gains in body weight and body fat, and worsening of cardiometabolic risk markers, during a 4-week period of indulgent food snacking in overweight/obese men. Twenty-eight physically inactive men (ages 19–47 yr) with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 consumed 48 donuts (2/day, 6 days/week; ~14,500 kcal total) for 4 weeks while maintaining habitual diet. Men were randomly assigned to control (n = 9), moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; n = 9), or high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 10). Exercise training occurred 4 days/week, ~250 kcal/session. Controls did not increase body weight, body fat, or visceral abdominal fat. This was partially explained by a decrease in self-reported habitual energy (−239 kcal/day, p = 0.05) and carbohydrate (−47 g/day; p = 0.02) intake. Large inter-individual variability in changes in body weight, fat, and fat-free mass was evident in all groups. Fasting blood pressure, and blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and lipids were unchanged in all groups. Glucose incremental area under the curve during an oral glucose tolerance test was reduced by 25.6% in control (p = 0.001) and 32.8% in MICT (p = 0.01) groups. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was not changed in any group. VO2max increased (p ≤ 0.001) in MICT (9.2%) and HIIT (12.1%) groups. We conclude that in physically inactive men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, consuming ~14,500 kcal as donuts over 4 weeks did not adversely affect body weight and body fat, or several markers of cardiometabolic risk. Consumption of the donuts may have prevented the expected improvement in FMD with HIIT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere15118
JournalPhysiological reports
Volume9
Issue number22
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • body fat
  • donuts
  • endothelial function
  • energy compensation
  • obesity
  • sugar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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