Effects of Gravitational Interactions on Asteroid Spin States

D. J. Scheeres, S. J. Ostro, R. A. Werner, E. Asphaug, R. S. Hudson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We demonstrate that mutual gravitational interactions between an asteroid and a planet or another asteroid can play an important role in shaping an asteroid's spin state. We focus on two situations that asteroids may encounter during their lifetimes. The first is the environment after creation from a disrupted parent asteroid, when there may be many asteroid fragments interacting gravitationally with each other before their mutual escape. The other is the interaction between an asteroid and a planet during a hyperbolic flyby. In each case the mutual gravitational interaction can alter the asteroid's spin state. We derive analytical descriptions of the effects and perform numerical simulations to explore the interactions and to give examples. The net effect of many small interactions, taken in isolation, is to cause the asteroid to spin at a faster rate - although this must be balanced against all other effects that influence spin rates. Conversely, the effect of a single, strong interaction can fundamentally change an asteroid's spin state, causing it to tumble and significantly increasing or decreasing its overall angular momentum. We simulate interactions of a sphere of arbitrary mass with Toutatis and find that these types of gravitational interactions can provide partial explanations for the current Toutatis rotational state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-118
Number of pages13
JournalIcarus
Volume147
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2000
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

asteroids
asteroid
interactions
planets
planet
effect
rotational states
angular momentum
encounters
escape
isolation
fragments
life (durability)
causes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Scheeres, D. J., Ostro, S. J., Werner, R. A., Asphaug, E., & Hudson, R. S. (2000). Effects of Gravitational Interactions on Asteroid Spin States. Icarus, 147(1), 106-118. https://doi.org/10.1006/icar.2000.6443

Effects of Gravitational Interactions on Asteroid Spin States. / Scheeres, D. J.; Ostro, S. J.; Werner, R. A.; Asphaug, E.; Hudson, R. S.

In: Icarus, Vol. 147, No. 1, 09.2000, p. 106-118.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Scheeres, DJ, Ostro, SJ, Werner, RA, Asphaug, E & Hudson, RS 2000, 'Effects of Gravitational Interactions on Asteroid Spin States', Icarus, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 106-118. https://doi.org/10.1006/icar.2000.6443
Scheeres DJ, Ostro SJ, Werner RA, Asphaug E, Hudson RS. Effects of Gravitational Interactions on Asteroid Spin States. Icarus. 2000 Sep;147(1):106-118. https://doi.org/10.1006/icar.2000.6443
Scheeres, D. J. ; Ostro, S. J. ; Werner, R. A. ; Asphaug, E. ; Hudson, R. S. / Effects of Gravitational Interactions on Asteroid Spin States. In: Icarus. 2000 ; Vol. 147, No. 1. pp. 106-118.
@article{bd029c72bcc0444f964d011bb54aa3f3,
title = "Effects of Gravitational Interactions on Asteroid Spin States",
abstract = "We demonstrate that mutual gravitational interactions between an asteroid and a planet or another asteroid can play an important role in shaping an asteroid's spin state. We focus on two situations that asteroids may encounter during their lifetimes. The first is the environment after creation from a disrupted parent asteroid, when there may be many asteroid fragments interacting gravitationally with each other before their mutual escape. The other is the interaction between an asteroid and a planet during a hyperbolic flyby. In each case the mutual gravitational interaction can alter the asteroid's spin state. We derive analytical descriptions of the effects and perform numerical simulations to explore the interactions and to give examples. The net effect of many small interactions, taken in isolation, is to cause the asteroid to spin at a faster rate - although this must be balanced against all other effects that influence spin rates. Conversely, the effect of a single, strong interaction can fundamentally change an asteroid's spin state, causing it to tumble and significantly increasing or decreasing its overall angular momentum. We simulate interactions of a sphere of arbitrary mass with Toutatis and find that these types of gravitational interactions can provide partial explanations for the current Toutatis rotational state.",
author = "Scheeres, {D. J.} and Ostro, {S. J.} and Werner, {R. A.} and E. Asphaug and Hudson, {R. S.}",
year = "2000",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1006/icar.2000.6443",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "147",
pages = "106--118",
journal = "Icarus",
issn = "0019-1035",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of Gravitational Interactions on Asteroid Spin States

AU - Scheeres, D. J.

AU - Ostro, S. J.

AU - Werner, R. A.

AU - Asphaug, E.

AU - Hudson, R. S.

PY - 2000/9

Y1 - 2000/9

N2 - We demonstrate that mutual gravitational interactions between an asteroid and a planet or another asteroid can play an important role in shaping an asteroid's spin state. We focus on two situations that asteroids may encounter during their lifetimes. The first is the environment after creation from a disrupted parent asteroid, when there may be many asteroid fragments interacting gravitationally with each other before their mutual escape. The other is the interaction between an asteroid and a planet during a hyperbolic flyby. In each case the mutual gravitational interaction can alter the asteroid's spin state. We derive analytical descriptions of the effects and perform numerical simulations to explore the interactions and to give examples. The net effect of many small interactions, taken in isolation, is to cause the asteroid to spin at a faster rate - although this must be balanced against all other effects that influence spin rates. Conversely, the effect of a single, strong interaction can fundamentally change an asteroid's spin state, causing it to tumble and significantly increasing or decreasing its overall angular momentum. We simulate interactions of a sphere of arbitrary mass with Toutatis and find that these types of gravitational interactions can provide partial explanations for the current Toutatis rotational state.

AB - We demonstrate that mutual gravitational interactions between an asteroid and a planet or another asteroid can play an important role in shaping an asteroid's spin state. We focus on two situations that asteroids may encounter during their lifetimes. The first is the environment after creation from a disrupted parent asteroid, when there may be many asteroid fragments interacting gravitationally with each other before their mutual escape. The other is the interaction between an asteroid and a planet during a hyperbolic flyby. In each case the mutual gravitational interaction can alter the asteroid's spin state. We derive analytical descriptions of the effects and perform numerical simulations to explore the interactions and to give examples. The net effect of many small interactions, taken in isolation, is to cause the asteroid to spin at a faster rate - although this must be balanced against all other effects that influence spin rates. Conversely, the effect of a single, strong interaction can fundamentally change an asteroid's spin state, causing it to tumble and significantly increasing or decreasing its overall angular momentum. We simulate interactions of a sphere of arbitrary mass with Toutatis and find that these types of gravitational interactions can provide partial explanations for the current Toutatis rotational state.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0001172425&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0001172425&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1006/icar.2000.6443

DO - 10.1006/icar.2000.6443

M3 - Article

VL - 147

SP - 106

EP - 118

JO - Icarus

JF - Icarus

SN - 0019-1035

IS - 1

ER -