Effects of glycemic index and cereal fiber on postprandial endothelial function, glycemia, and insulinemia in healthy adults

Glenn A. Gaesser, Jessica Rodriguez, James T. Patrie, Corrie M. Whisner, Siddhartha S. Angadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Both glycemic index and dietary fiber are associated with cardiovascular disease risk, which may be related in part to postprandial vascular effects. We examined the effects of both glycemic index (GI) and dietary (mainly cereal) fiber on postprandial endothelial function. Eleven adults (5 men; 6 women; age = 42.4 ± 16.1 years; weight = 70.5 ± 10.7 kg; height = 173.7 ± 8.7 cm) consumed four different breakfast meals on separate, randomized occasions: High-Fiber, Low-GI (HF-LGI: Fiber = 20.4 g; GI = 44); Low-Fiber, Low-GI (LF-LGI: Fiber = 4.3 g; GI = 43); Low-Fiber, High-GI (LF-HGI: Fiber = 3.6 g; GI = 70); High-Fiber, High-GI (HF-HGI: Fiber = 20.3 g; GI = 71). Meals were equal in total kcal (~600) and macronutrient composition (~90 g digestible carbohydrate; ~21 g protein; ~15 g fat). The HF-LGI meal resulted in a significant increase in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) 4 hours after meal ingestion (7.8% ± 5.9% to 13.2% ± 5.5%; p = 0.02). FMD was not changed after the other meals. Regardless of fiber content, low-GI meals resulted in ~9% lower 4-hour glucose area under curve (AUC) (p < 0.05). The HF-LGI meal produced the lowest 4-hour insulin AUC, which was ~43% lower than LF-HGI and HF-HGI (p < 0.001), and 28% lower than LF-LGI (p = 0.02). We conclude that in healthy adults, a meal with low GI and high in cereal fiber enhances postprandial endothelial function. Although the effect of a low-GI meal on reducing postprandial glucose AUC was independent of fiber, the effect of a low-GI meal on reducing postprandial insulin AUC was augmented by cereal fiber.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2387
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2019

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Flow-mediated dilation
  • Glucose
  • Insoluble fiber
  • Insulin
  • Vascular

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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