Effects of emotional icons on remote communication

Krisela Rivera, Nancy J. Cooke, Jeff A. Bauhs

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

54 Scopus citations


As technology advances, we are shifting from direct face-to-face or voice to voice interactions to computer-mediated communication (CMC). As a result of this shift the nature of communication has changed; in particular the ability to convey emotion is less straight forward. Twenty three subjects participated in a simulated, remote-CMC, group-decision making session. Twelve subjects had emoticons available, although use of these icons was optional. The remaining eleven did not have emoticons available. Dependent measures included user satisfaction, user frustration, conformity, length and focus of message, satisfaction with CMC system, and recall of communication events. The results indicated that subjects with emoticons used them and were more satisfied with the system than those subjects without emoticons. Thus it appears that users respond to emoticons and interpret them as intended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages2
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes
EventProceedings of the 1996 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 96 - Vancouver, BC, Can
Duration: Apr 13 1996Apr 18 1996


OtherProceedings of the 1996 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 96
CityVancouver, BC, Can

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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