Effects of an intensive short-term diet and exercise intervention: Comparison between normal-weight and obese children

Christian K. Roberts, Ali Izadpanah, Siddhartha Angadi, R. James Barnard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lifestyle intervention programs currently emphasize weight loss secondary to obesity as the primary determinant of phenotypic changes. We examined whether the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention program differ in normal-weight versus overweight/obese children. Nineteen overweight/obese (O; BMI = 33.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 14 normal-weight (N; BMI = 19.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) children participated in a 2-wk program consisting of an ad libitum high-fiber, low-fat diet and daily exercise (2-2.5 h). Fasting serum samples were taken pre- and postintervention for determination of lipids, glucose homeostasis, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines. Only the O group lost weight (3.9%) but remained overweight/obese (32.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Both groups exhibited significant intervention-induced decreases (P< 0.05) in serum insulin (N: 52.5% vs. O: 28.1%; between groups, P = 0.38), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (N: 53.1% vs. O: 28.4%, P = 0.43), leptin (N: 69.3% vs. O: 44.1%, P = 0.10), amylin (N: 28.7% vs. O: 26.1%, P = 0.80), resistin (N: 40.0% vs. O: 35.1%, P = 0.99), plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (N: 30.8% vs. O: 25.6%, P = 0.59), IL-6 (N: 58.8% vs. O: 48.5%, P = 0.78), IL-8 (N: 46.0% vs. O: 42.2%, P = 0.49), and TNFα (N: 45.8% vs. O: 40.8%, P = 0.99). No associations between indices of weight change and phenotypic changes were noted. A short-term, intensive lifestyle modification program is effective in ameliorating metabolic risk factors in N and O children. These results suggest that obesity per se was not the primary driver of the phenotypes noted and that dietary intake and physical inactivity induce the phenotypic abnormalities. These data may have implications for the weight loss-independent management of cardiometabolic risk in pediatric populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume305
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Exercise
Diet
Life Style
Weights and Measures
Weight Loss
Obesity
Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
Resistin
Fat-Restricted Diet
Adipokines
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
Risk Management
Leptin
Serum
Interleukin-8
Insulin Resistance
Interleukin-6
Fasting
Homeostasis
Insulin

Keywords

  • Cytokines
  • Metabolic
  • Nutrition
  • Physical activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Effects of an intensive short-term diet and exercise intervention: Comparison between normal-weight and obese children",
abstract = "Lifestyle intervention programs currently emphasize weight loss secondary to obesity as the primary determinant of phenotypic changes. We examined whether the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention program differ in normal-weight versus overweight/obese children. Nineteen overweight/obese (O; BMI = 33.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 14 normal-weight (N; BMI = 19.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) children participated in a 2-wk program consisting of an ad libitum high-fiber, low-fat diet and daily exercise (2-2.5 h). Fasting serum samples were taken pre- and postintervention for determination of lipids, glucose homeostasis, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines. Only the O group lost weight (3.9{\%}) but remained overweight/obese (32.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Both groups exhibited significant intervention-induced decreases (P< 0.05) in serum insulin (N: 52.5{\%} vs. O: 28.1{\%}; between groups, P = 0.38), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (N: 53.1{\%} vs. O: 28.4{\%}, P = 0.43), leptin (N: 69.3{\%} vs. O: 44.1{\%}, P = 0.10), amylin (N: 28.7{\%} vs. O: 26.1{\%}, P = 0.80), resistin (N: 40.0{\%} vs. O: 35.1{\%}, P = 0.99), plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (N: 30.8{\%} vs. O: 25.6{\%}, P = 0.59), IL-6 (N: 58.8{\%} vs. O: 48.5{\%}, P = 0.78), IL-8 (N: 46.0{\%} vs. O: 42.2{\%}, P = 0.49), and TNFα (N: 45.8{\%} vs. O: 40.8{\%}, P = 0.99). No associations between indices of weight change and phenotypic changes were noted. A short-term, intensive lifestyle modification program is effective in ameliorating metabolic risk factors in N and O children. These results suggest that obesity per se was not the primary driver of the phenotypes noted and that dietary intake and physical inactivity induce the phenotypic abnormalities. These data may have implications for the weight loss-independent management of cardiometabolic risk in pediatric populations.",
keywords = "Cytokines, Metabolic, Nutrition, Physical activity",
author = "Roberts, {Christian K.} and Ali Izadpanah and Siddhartha Angadi and Barnard, {R. James}",
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T1 - Effects of an intensive short-term diet and exercise intervention

T2 - Comparison between normal-weight and obese children

AU - Roberts, Christian K.

AU - Izadpanah, Ali

AU - Angadi, Siddhartha

AU - Barnard, R. James

PY - 2013/9/1

Y1 - 2013/9/1

N2 - Lifestyle intervention programs currently emphasize weight loss secondary to obesity as the primary determinant of phenotypic changes. We examined whether the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention program differ in normal-weight versus overweight/obese children. Nineteen overweight/obese (O; BMI = 33.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 14 normal-weight (N; BMI = 19.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) children participated in a 2-wk program consisting of an ad libitum high-fiber, low-fat diet and daily exercise (2-2.5 h). Fasting serum samples were taken pre- and postintervention for determination of lipids, glucose homeostasis, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines. Only the O group lost weight (3.9%) but remained overweight/obese (32.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Both groups exhibited significant intervention-induced decreases (P< 0.05) in serum insulin (N: 52.5% vs. O: 28.1%; between groups, P = 0.38), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (N: 53.1% vs. O: 28.4%, P = 0.43), leptin (N: 69.3% vs. O: 44.1%, P = 0.10), amylin (N: 28.7% vs. O: 26.1%, P = 0.80), resistin (N: 40.0% vs. O: 35.1%, P = 0.99), plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (N: 30.8% vs. O: 25.6%, P = 0.59), IL-6 (N: 58.8% vs. O: 48.5%, P = 0.78), IL-8 (N: 46.0% vs. O: 42.2%, P = 0.49), and TNFα (N: 45.8% vs. O: 40.8%, P = 0.99). No associations between indices of weight change and phenotypic changes were noted. A short-term, intensive lifestyle modification program is effective in ameliorating metabolic risk factors in N and O children. These results suggest that obesity per se was not the primary driver of the phenotypes noted and that dietary intake and physical inactivity induce the phenotypic abnormalities. These data may have implications for the weight loss-independent management of cardiometabolic risk in pediatric populations.

AB - Lifestyle intervention programs currently emphasize weight loss secondary to obesity as the primary determinant of phenotypic changes. We examined whether the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention program differ in normal-weight versus overweight/obese children. Nineteen overweight/obese (O; BMI = 33.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 14 normal-weight (N; BMI = 19.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) children participated in a 2-wk program consisting of an ad libitum high-fiber, low-fat diet and daily exercise (2-2.5 h). Fasting serum samples were taken pre- and postintervention for determination of lipids, glucose homeostasis, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines. Only the O group lost weight (3.9%) but remained overweight/obese (32.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Both groups exhibited significant intervention-induced decreases (P< 0.05) in serum insulin (N: 52.5% vs. O: 28.1%; between groups, P = 0.38), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (N: 53.1% vs. O: 28.4%, P = 0.43), leptin (N: 69.3% vs. O: 44.1%, P = 0.10), amylin (N: 28.7% vs. O: 26.1%, P = 0.80), resistin (N: 40.0% vs. O: 35.1%, P = 0.99), plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (N: 30.8% vs. O: 25.6%, P = 0.59), IL-6 (N: 58.8% vs. O: 48.5%, P = 0.78), IL-8 (N: 46.0% vs. O: 42.2%, P = 0.49), and TNFα (N: 45.8% vs. O: 40.8%, P = 0.99). No associations between indices of weight change and phenotypic changes were noted. A short-term, intensive lifestyle modification program is effective in ameliorating metabolic risk factors in N and O children. These results suggest that obesity per se was not the primary driver of the phenotypes noted and that dietary intake and physical inactivity induce the phenotypic abnormalities. These data may have implications for the weight loss-independent management of cardiometabolic risk in pediatric populations.

KW - Cytokines

KW - Metabolic

KW - Nutrition

KW - Physical activity

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U2 - 10.1152/ajpregu.00131.2013

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JO - American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism

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