Effect of SrTiO 3 oxygen vacancies on the conductivity of LaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 heterostructures

Bryce I. Edmondson, Shuhaog Liu, Sirong Lu, Hsin Wei Wu, Agham Posadas, David Smith, Xuan P.A. Gao, Alexander A. Demkov, John G. Ekerdt

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Abstract

In this work, we report the formation of a conductive layer through oxygen vacancies in an underlying SrTiO 3 (STO) layer due to the growth of LaTiO 3 (LTO) and the resulting LTO thickness-dependent conductivity of the LTO/STO system. Crystalline LTO films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on TiO 2 -terminated STO(001) single-crystal substrates and 8-unit-cell (u.c.) STO template layers grown on Ge(001), under partial pressures of molecular oxygen ranging from 10 -10 to 10 -7 Torr. Film crystallinity was studied by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, ex situ X-ray diffraction, and ex situ transmission electron microscopy. Film composition and the existence of oxygen vacancies were confirmed by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. LTO films grown on STO substrates at oxygen partial pressures of 10 -10 Torr were optimally oxidized (1:1:3 La:Ti:O). However, LTO films grown on 8-u.c. templates of STO on Ge with oxygen partial pressures less than 10 -7 Torr showed extensive reduction of the Ti oxide and desorption of Sr/SrO in the STO layer. LTO films began to over-oxidize when grown on STO single-crystal substrates at oxygen partial pressures greater than 10 -10 Torr but were nearly optimally oxidized when grown on STO templates on Ge at oxygen partial pressures of 10 -7 Torr. Electrical characterization showed a dependence of conductivity on the thickness of the LTO films, with sheet carrier densities reaching ∼5 × 10 16 cm -2 for 20-u.c. (8-nm-thick) LTO/STO grown at 10 -10 Torr of oxygen, suggesting that significant conduction occurred throughout the STO substrate due to the formation of oxygen vacancies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number185303
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume124
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 14 2018

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conductivity
oxygen
partial pressure
templates
cells
single crystals
high energy electrons
crystallinity
x rays
molecular beam epitaxy
electron diffraction
desorption
photoelectron spectroscopy
conduction
transmission electron microscopy
oxides
diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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Effect of SrTiO 3 oxygen vacancies on the conductivity of LaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 heterostructures . / Edmondson, Bryce I.; Liu, Shuhaog; Lu, Sirong; Wu, Hsin Wei; Posadas, Agham; Smith, David; Gao, Xuan P.A.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 124, No. 18, 185303, 14.11.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Edmondson, BI, Liu, S, Lu, S, Wu, HW, Posadas, A, Smith, D, Gao, XPA, Demkov, AA & Ekerdt, JG 2018, ' Effect of SrTiO 3 oxygen vacancies on the conductivity of LaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 heterostructures ', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 124, no. 18, 185303. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5046081
Edmondson, Bryce I. ; Liu, Shuhaog ; Lu, Sirong ; Wu, Hsin Wei ; Posadas, Agham ; Smith, David ; Gao, Xuan P.A. ; Demkov, Alexander A. ; Ekerdt, John G. / Effect of SrTiO 3 oxygen vacancies on the conductivity of LaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 heterostructures In: Journal of Applied Physics. 2018 ; Vol. 124, No. 18.
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AU - Edmondson, Bryce I.

AU - Liu, Shuhaog

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AU - Wu, Hsin Wei

AU - Posadas, Agham

AU - Smith, David

AU - Gao, Xuan P.A.

AU - Demkov, Alexander A.

AU - Ekerdt, John G.

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AB - In this work, we report the formation of a conductive layer through oxygen vacancies in an underlying SrTiO 3 (STO) layer due to the growth of LaTiO 3 (LTO) and the resulting LTO thickness-dependent conductivity of the LTO/STO system. Crystalline LTO films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on TiO 2 -terminated STO(001) single-crystal substrates and 8-unit-cell (u.c.) STO template layers grown on Ge(001), under partial pressures of molecular oxygen ranging from 10 -10 to 10 -7 Torr. Film crystallinity was studied by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, ex situ X-ray diffraction, and ex situ transmission electron microscopy. Film composition and the existence of oxygen vacancies were confirmed by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. LTO films grown on STO substrates at oxygen partial pressures of 10 -10 Torr were optimally oxidized (1:1:3 La:Ti:O). However, LTO films grown on 8-u.c. templates of STO on Ge with oxygen partial pressures less than 10 -7 Torr showed extensive reduction of the Ti oxide and desorption of Sr/SrO in the STO layer. LTO films began to over-oxidize when grown on STO single-crystal substrates at oxygen partial pressures greater than 10 -10 Torr but were nearly optimally oxidized when grown on STO templates on Ge at oxygen partial pressures of 10 -7 Torr. Electrical characterization showed a dependence of conductivity on the thickness of the LTO films, with sheet carrier densities reaching ∼5 × 10 16 cm -2 for 20-u.c. (8-nm-thick) LTO/STO grown at 10 -10 Torr of oxygen, suggesting that significant conduction occurred throughout the STO substrate due to the formation of oxygen vacancies.

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