Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism

James Adams, Tapan Audhya, Sharon McDonough-Means, Robert A. Rubin, David Quig, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Melissa Loresto, Jessica Mitchell, Sharon Atwood, Suzanne Barnhouse, Wondra Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

98 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Vitamin/mineral supplements are among the most commonly used treatments for autism, but the research on their use for treating autism has been limited.Method: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three month vitamin/mineral treatment study. The study involved 141 children and adults with autism, and pre and post symptoms of autism were assessed. None of the participants had taken a vitamin/mineral supplement in the two months prior to the start of the study. For a subset of the participants (53 children ages 5-16) pre and post measurements of nutritional and metabolic status were also conducted.Results: The vitamin/mineral supplement was generally well-tolerated, and individually titrated to optimum benefit. Levels of many vitamins, minerals, and biomarkers improved/increased showing good compliance and absorption. Statistically significant improvements in metabolic status were many including: total sulfate (+17%, p = 0.001), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; +6%, p = 0.003), reduced glutathione (+17%, p = 0.0008), ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH; -27%, p = 0.002), nitrotyrosine (-29%, p = 0.004), ATP (+25%, p = 0.000001), NADH (+28%, p = 0.0002), and NADPH (+30%, p = 0.001). Most of these metabolic biomarkers improved to normal or near-normal levels.The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than the placebo group on the Parental Global Impressions-Revised (PGI-R, Average Change, p = 0.008), and on the subscores for Hyperactivity (p = 0.003), Tantrumming (p = 0.009), Overall (p = 0.02), and Receptive Language (p = 0.03). For the other three assessment tools the difference between treatment group and placebo group was not statistically significant.Regression analysis revealed that the degree of improvement on the Average Change of the PGI-R was strongly associated with several biomarkers (adj. R 2 = 0.61, p < 0.0005) with the initial levels of biotin and vitamin K being the most significant (p < 0.05); both biotin and vitamin K are made by beneficial intestinal flora.Conclusions: Oral vitamin/mineral supplementation is beneficial in improving the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism, including improvements in methylation, glutathione, oxidative stress, sulfation, ATP, NADH, and NADPH. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than did the placebo group on the PGI-R Average Change. This suggests that a vitamin/mineral supplement is a reasonable adjunct therapy to consider for most children and adults with autism.Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01225198.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111
JournalBMC Pediatrics
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 12 2011

Fingerprint

Autistic Disorder
Vitamins
Minerals
Placebos
Glutathione
Glutathione Disulfide
Vitamin K
Biomarkers
Biotin
Nutritional Status
NADP
NAD
Adenosine Triphosphate
S-Adenosylmethionine
Therapeutics
Methylation
Sulfates
Oxidative Stress
Language
Regression Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Adams, J., Audhya, T., McDonough-Means, S., Rubin, R. A., Quig, D., Geis, E., ... Lee, W. (2011). Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism. BMC Pediatrics, 11, [111]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-11-111

Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism. / Adams, James; Audhya, Tapan; McDonough-Means, Sharon; Rubin, Robert A.; Quig, David; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Loresto, Melissa; Mitchell, Jessica; Atwood, Sharon; Barnhouse, Suzanne; Lee, Wondra.

In: BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 11, 111, 12.12.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Adams, J, Audhya, T, McDonough-Means, S, Rubin, RA, Quig, D, Geis, E, Gehn, E, Loresto, M, Mitchell, J, Atwood, S, Barnhouse, S & Lee, W 2011, 'Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism', BMC Pediatrics, vol. 11, 111. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-11-111
Adams, James ; Audhya, Tapan ; McDonough-Means, Sharon ; Rubin, Robert A. ; Quig, David ; Geis, Elizabeth ; Gehn, Eva ; Loresto, Melissa ; Mitchell, Jessica ; Atwood, Sharon ; Barnhouse, Suzanne ; Lee, Wondra. / Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism. In: BMC Pediatrics. 2011 ; Vol. 11.
@article{1192e23df0e74baebed7358f6a32d28b,
title = "Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism",
abstract = "Background: Vitamin/mineral supplements are among the most commonly used treatments for autism, but the research on their use for treating autism has been limited.Method: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three month vitamin/mineral treatment study. The study involved 141 children and adults with autism, and pre and post symptoms of autism were assessed. None of the participants had taken a vitamin/mineral supplement in the two months prior to the start of the study. For a subset of the participants (53 children ages 5-16) pre and post measurements of nutritional and metabolic status were also conducted.Results: The vitamin/mineral supplement was generally well-tolerated, and individually titrated to optimum benefit. Levels of many vitamins, minerals, and biomarkers improved/increased showing good compliance and absorption. Statistically significant improvements in metabolic status were many including: total sulfate (+17{\%}, p = 0.001), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; +6{\%}, p = 0.003), reduced glutathione (+17{\%}, p = 0.0008), ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH; -27{\%}, p = 0.002), nitrotyrosine (-29{\%}, p = 0.004), ATP (+25{\%}, p = 0.000001), NADH (+28{\%}, p = 0.0002), and NADPH (+30{\%}, p = 0.001). Most of these metabolic biomarkers improved to normal or near-normal levels.The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than the placebo group on the Parental Global Impressions-Revised (PGI-R, Average Change, p = 0.008), and on the subscores for Hyperactivity (p = 0.003), Tantrumming (p = 0.009), Overall (p = 0.02), and Receptive Language (p = 0.03). For the other three assessment tools the difference between treatment group and placebo group was not statistically significant.Regression analysis revealed that the degree of improvement on the Average Change of the PGI-R was strongly associated with several biomarkers (adj. R 2 = 0.61, p < 0.0005) with the initial levels of biotin and vitamin K being the most significant (p < 0.05); both biotin and vitamin K are made by beneficial intestinal flora.Conclusions: Oral vitamin/mineral supplementation is beneficial in improving the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism, including improvements in methylation, glutathione, oxidative stress, sulfation, ATP, NADH, and NADPH. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than did the placebo group on the PGI-R Average Change. This suggests that a vitamin/mineral supplement is a reasonable adjunct therapy to consider for most children and adults with autism.Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01225198.",
author = "James Adams and Tapan Audhya and Sharon McDonough-Means and Rubin, {Robert A.} and David Quig and Elizabeth Geis and Eva Gehn and Melissa Loresto and Jessica Mitchell and Sharon Atwood and Suzanne Barnhouse and Wondra Lee",
year = "2011",
month = "12",
day = "12",
doi = "10.1186/1471-2431-11-111",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "11",
journal = "BMC Pediatrics",
issn = "1471-2431",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of a vitamin/mineral supplement on children and adults with autism

AU - Adams, James

AU - Audhya, Tapan

AU - McDonough-Means, Sharon

AU - Rubin, Robert A.

AU - Quig, David

AU - Geis, Elizabeth

AU - Gehn, Eva

AU - Loresto, Melissa

AU - Mitchell, Jessica

AU - Atwood, Sharon

AU - Barnhouse, Suzanne

AU - Lee, Wondra

PY - 2011/12/12

Y1 - 2011/12/12

N2 - Background: Vitamin/mineral supplements are among the most commonly used treatments for autism, but the research on their use for treating autism has been limited.Method: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three month vitamin/mineral treatment study. The study involved 141 children and adults with autism, and pre and post symptoms of autism were assessed. None of the participants had taken a vitamin/mineral supplement in the two months prior to the start of the study. For a subset of the participants (53 children ages 5-16) pre and post measurements of nutritional and metabolic status were also conducted.Results: The vitamin/mineral supplement was generally well-tolerated, and individually titrated to optimum benefit. Levels of many vitamins, minerals, and biomarkers improved/increased showing good compliance and absorption. Statistically significant improvements in metabolic status were many including: total sulfate (+17%, p = 0.001), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; +6%, p = 0.003), reduced glutathione (+17%, p = 0.0008), ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH; -27%, p = 0.002), nitrotyrosine (-29%, p = 0.004), ATP (+25%, p = 0.000001), NADH (+28%, p = 0.0002), and NADPH (+30%, p = 0.001). Most of these metabolic biomarkers improved to normal or near-normal levels.The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than the placebo group on the Parental Global Impressions-Revised (PGI-R, Average Change, p = 0.008), and on the subscores for Hyperactivity (p = 0.003), Tantrumming (p = 0.009), Overall (p = 0.02), and Receptive Language (p = 0.03). For the other three assessment tools the difference between treatment group and placebo group was not statistically significant.Regression analysis revealed that the degree of improvement on the Average Change of the PGI-R was strongly associated with several biomarkers (adj. R 2 = 0.61, p < 0.0005) with the initial levels of biotin and vitamin K being the most significant (p < 0.05); both biotin and vitamin K are made by beneficial intestinal flora.Conclusions: Oral vitamin/mineral supplementation is beneficial in improving the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism, including improvements in methylation, glutathione, oxidative stress, sulfation, ATP, NADH, and NADPH. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than did the placebo group on the PGI-R Average Change. This suggests that a vitamin/mineral supplement is a reasonable adjunct therapy to consider for most children and adults with autism.Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01225198.

AB - Background: Vitamin/mineral supplements are among the most commonly used treatments for autism, but the research on their use for treating autism has been limited.Method: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled three month vitamin/mineral treatment study. The study involved 141 children and adults with autism, and pre and post symptoms of autism were assessed. None of the participants had taken a vitamin/mineral supplement in the two months prior to the start of the study. For a subset of the participants (53 children ages 5-16) pre and post measurements of nutritional and metabolic status were also conducted.Results: The vitamin/mineral supplement was generally well-tolerated, and individually titrated to optimum benefit. Levels of many vitamins, minerals, and biomarkers improved/increased showing good compliance and absorption. Statistically significant improvements in metabolic status were many including: total sulfate (+17%, p = 0.001), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM; +6%, p = 0.003), reduced glutathione (+17%, p = 0.0008), ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH; -27%, p = 0.002), nitrotyrosine (-29%, p = 0.004), ATP (+25%, p = 0.000001), NADH (+28%, p = 0.0002), and NADPH (+30%, p = 0.001). Most of these metabolic biomarkers improved to normal or near-normal levels.The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than the placebo group on the Parental Global Impressions-Revised (PGI-R, Average Change, p = 0.008), and on the subscores for Hyperactivity (p = 0.003), Tantrumming (p = 0.009), Overall (p = 0.02), and Receptive Language (p = 0.03). For the other three assessment tools the difference between treatment group and placebo group was not statistically significant.Regression analysis revealed that the degree of improvement on the Average Change of the PGI-R was strongly associated with several biomarkers (adj. R 2 = 0.61, p < 0.0005) with the initial levels of biotin and vitamin K being the most significant (p < 0.05); both biotin and vitamin K are made by beneficial intestinal flora.Conclusions: Oral vitamin/mineral supplementation is beneficial in improving the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism, including improvements in methylation, glutathione, oxidative stress, sulfation, ATP, NADH, and NADPH. The supplement group had significantly greater improvements than did the placebo group on the PGI-R Average Change. This suggests that a vitamin/mineral supplement is a reasonable adjunct therapy to consider for most children and adults with autism.Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01225198.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=83155191076&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=83155191076&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2431-11-111

DO - 10.1186/1471-2431-11-111

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - BMC Pediatrics

JF - BMC Pediatrics

SN - 1471-2431

M1 - 111

ER -