Effect of a sustained reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentration on intramuscular long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and insulin action in type 2 diabetic patients

Mandeep Bajaj, Swangjit Suraamornkul, Anthony Romanelli, Gary W. Cline, Lawrence J. Mandarino, Gerald I. Shulman, Ralph A. DeFronzo

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    Abstract

    To investigate the effect of a sustained (7-day) decrease in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations on insulin action and intramyocellular long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs (LCFA-CoAs), we studied the effect of acipimox, a potent inhibitor of lipolysis, in seven type 2 diabetic patients (age 53 ± 3 years, BMI 30.2 ± 2.0 kg/m2, fasting plasma glucose 8.5 ± 0.8 mmol/l, HbA1c 7.5 ± 0.4%). Subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 120-min euglycemic insulin (80 mU/m2 per min) clamp with 3-[3H]glucose/vastus lateralis muscle biopsies to quantitate rates of insulin-mediated whole-body glucose disposal (Rd) and intramyocellular LCFA-CoAs before and after acipimox (250 mg every 6 h for 7 days). Acipimox significantly reduced fasting plasma FFAs (from 563 ± 74 to 230 ± 33 μmol/l; P < 0.01) and mean plasma FFAs during the OGTT (from 409 ± 44 to 184 ± 22 μmol/l; P < 0.01). After acipimox, decreases were seen in fasting plasma insulin (from 78 ± 18 to 42 ± 6 pmol/l; P < 0.05), fasting plasma glucose (from 8.5 ± 0.8 to 7.0 ± 0.5 mmol/l; P < 0.02), and mean plasma glucose during the OGTT (from 14.5 ± 0.8 to 13.0 ± 0.8 mmol/l; P < 0.05). After acipimox, insulinstimulated Rd increased from 3.3 ± 0.4 to 4.4 ± 0.4 mg·kg -1·min-1 (P < 0.03), whereas suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) was similar and virtually complete during both insulin clamp studies (0.16 ± 0.10 vs. 0.14 ± 0.10 mg·kg-1·min-1; P > 0.05). Basal EGP did not change after acipimox (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 mg·kg-1·min-1). Total muscle LCFA-CoA content decreased after acipimox treatment (from 7.26 ± 0.58 to 5.64 ± 0.79 nmol/g; P < 0.05). Decreases were also seen in muscle palmityl CoA (16:0; from 1.06 ± 0.10 to 0.75 ± 0.11 nmol/g; P < 0.05), palmitoleate CoA (16:1; from 0.48 ± 0.05 to 0.33 ± 0.05 nmol/g; P = 0.07), oleate CoA (18:1; from 2.60 ± 0.11 to 1.95 ± 0.31 nmol/g; P < 0.05), linoleate CoA (18:2; from 1.81 ± 0.26 to 1.38 ± 0.18 nmol/g; P = 0.13), and linolenate CoA (18:3; from 0.27 ± 0.03 to 0.19 ± 0.02 nmol/g; P < 0.03) levels after acipimox treatment. Muscle stearate CoA (18:0) did not decrease after acipimox treatment. The increase in Rd correlated strongly with the decrease in muscle palmityl CoA (r = 0.75, P < 0.05), oleate CoA (r = 0.76, P < 0.05), and total muscle LCFA-CoA (r = 0.74, P < 0.05) levels. Plasma adiponectin did not change significantly after acipimox treatment (7.9 ± 1.8 vs. 7.5 ± 1.5 μg/ml). These data demonstrate that the reduction in intramuscular LCFA-CoA content is closely associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity in muscle after a chronic reduction in plasma FFA concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients despite the lack of an effect on plasma adiponectin concentration.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)3148-3153
    Number of pages6
    JournalDiabetes
    Volume54
    Issue number11
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Nov 2005

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Internal Medicine
    • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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