This study examined risk factors from infancy associated with the development of preschool disruptive behavior problems across child, parent, and sociodemographic domains. Risk factors that consistently were associated with the prediction of disruptive behavior at age 5 years included disorganized attachment classification at 12 months, and maternal personality risk and child-rearing disagreements during the second year. In addition, infants with disorganized attachment status at 12 months whose mothers perceived them as difficult in the second year showed significantly higher aggressive problems at age 5 years than those with only one of the two risk factors present. When pathways leading to clinically elevated aggression at age 5 were explored, infant disorganized attachment status, maternal personality risk, and child-rearing disagreements demonstrated equivalent predictive validity as child aggression assessed at age 3 years.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health