Early patterns of self-regulation as risk and promotive factors in development: A longitudinal study from childhood to adulthood in a high-risk sample

José M. Causadias, Jessica E. Salvatore, L. Alan Sroufe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

The present study examines two childhood markers of self-regulation, ego control and ego resiliency, as promotive factors for the development of global adjustment and as risk factors for the development of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a high-risk sample. Teachers and observers rated ego control and ego resiliency when participants (n = 136) were in preschool and elementary school. Ratings showed evidence for convergent and discriminant validity and stability over time. Ego resiliency, but not ego control, emerged as a powerful predictor of adaptive functioning at ages 19 and 26, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems at 16, 23, 26, and 32 years. We interpret these findings as evidence that flexibility and adaptability-measured with ego resiliency-may reduce risk and promote successful adaptation in low socioeconomic status (SES) environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-302
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
Volume36
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Behavior problems
  • Ego control
  • Ego resiliency
  • Externalizing problems
  • High-risk sample
  • Internalizing problems
  • Longitudinal study
  • Promotive factor
  • Risk factor
  • Self-regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

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