Dynamic vibrotactile warning signals for frontal collision avoidance: towards the torso versus towards the head

Fanxing Meng, Cristy Ho, Rob Gray, Charles Spence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations


Three experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of dynamic vibrotactile warning signals with different spatial patterns and to compare dynamic towards-torso and towards-head vibrotactile warnings in a simulated driving task. The results revealed that embedding additional stimuli between the participant's hands and waist in the towards-torso cues (Experiment 1) and increasing the spatial distance between adjacent stimuli in the towards-head cues (Experiment 2) did not result in any further benefits in braking response times (BRTs). The triple towards-head cues resulting from the sequential operation of three pairs of stimuli on the torso gave rise to a significant advantage over the static cues; however, it did not outperform the dynamic towards-torso cues with just two pairs of stimuli. Taken together, these results demonstrated the promise of dynamic vibrotactile warnings (especially, the towards-torso warnings) in terms of the future design of more effective rear-end collision warnings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)411-425
Number of pages15
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 4 2015
Externally publishedYes



  • brake reaction time
  • driving
  • frontal collision warning
  • haptic
  • interface design
  • tactile

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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