Double-focusing mixing jet for XFEL study of chemical kinetics

Dingjie Wang, Uwe Weierstall, Lois Pollack, John Spence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Several liquid sample injection methods have been developed to satisfy the requirements for serial femtosecond X-ray nanocrystallography, which enables radiation-damage-free determination of molecular structure at room temperature. Time-resolved nanocrystallography would combine structure analysis with chemical kinetics by determining the structures of the transient states and chemical kinetic mechanisms simultaneously. A windowless liquid mixing jet device has been designed for this purpose. It achieves fast uniform mixing of substrates and enzymes in the jet within 250μs, with an adjustable delay between mixing and probing by the X-ray free-electron laser beam of up to 1s for each frame of a 'movie'. The principle of the liquid mixing jet device is illustrated using numerical simulation, and experimental results are presented using a fluorescent dye.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1364-1366
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of synchrotron radiation
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014


  • chemical kinetics
  • mixing jet
  • sample injection
  • time-resolved diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation


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