The dopant compensation mechanism in 2-5 mol.% niobium (Nb)-doped Pb(Zr0.52, Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films was studied to obtain single phase compositions, Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Nb-doped composition batched according to the Ti vacancy model, was single phase. This indicated that niobium donors were compensated by titanium vacancies at the B site. The beneficial effect of donors in single phase composition and detrimental effects of grain boundary second phases and acceptors on the leakage currents are reported, The single-phase Nb-doped (5%) PZT thin film exhibited a low leakage current of 1×10-7 A cm-2 at 1.2 MV cm-1.
- Transmission electron microscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Metals and Alloys
- Materials Chemistry