Does class size in first grade relate to children's academic and social performance or observed classroom processes?

Virginia Allhusen, Jay Belsky, Cathryn L. Booth-LaForce, Robert Bradley, Celia A. Brownell, Margaret Burchinal, Susan B. Campbell, K. Alison Clarke-Stewart, Martha Cox, Sarah L. Friedman, Kathryn Hirsh-Pasek, Renate M. Houts, Aletha Huston, Elizabeth Jaeger, Deborah J. Johnson, Jean F. Kelly, Bonnie Knoke, Nancy Marshall, Kathleen McCartney, Frederick J. MorrisonMarion O'Brien, Margaret Tresch Owen, Chris Payne, Deborah Phillips, Robert Pianta, Suzanne M. Randolph, Wendy W. Robeson, Susan Spieker, Deborah Lowe Vandell, Marsha Weinraub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

71 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were somewhat less likely to be engaged. Teachers in smaller classes rated typical children in those classes as more socially skilled and as showing less externalizing behavior and reported more closeness toward them. Children in smaller classes performed better on literacy skills. Larger classrooms showed more group activities directed by the teacher, teachers and children interacted more often, and children were more often engaged. Lower class sizes were not of more benefit (or harm) as a function of the child's family income. First-grade class size in the range typical of present-day classrooms in the United States predicts classroom social and instructional processes as well as relative changes in social and literacy outcomes from kindergarten to first grade.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)651-664
Number of pages14
JournalDevelopmental Psychology
Volume40
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

school grade
classroom
performance
teacher
literacy
lower class
family income
kindergarten
present
Group

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Does class size in first grade relate to children's academic and social performance or observed classroom processes? / Allhusen, Virginia; Belsky, Jay; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Bradley, Robert; Brownell, Celia A.; Burchinal, Margaret; Campbell, Susan B.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Cox, Martha; Friedman, Sarah L.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Houts, Renate M.; Huston, Aletha; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Johnson, Deborah J.; Kelly, Jean F.; Knoke, Bonnie; Marshall, Nancy; McCartney, Kathleen; Morrison, Frederick J.; O'Brien, Marion; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Payne, Chris; Phillips, Deborah; Pianta, Robert; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Robeson, Wendy W.; Spieker, Susan; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Weinraub, Marsha.

In: Developmental Psychology, Vol. 40, No. 5, 09.2004, p. 651-664.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Allhusen, V, Belsky, J, Booth-LaForce, CL, Bradley, R, Brownell, CA, Burchinal, M, Campbell, SB, Clarke-Stewart, KA, Cox, M, Friedman, SL, Hirsh-Pasek, K, Houts, RM, Huston, A, Jaeger, E, Johnson, DJ, Kelly, JF, Knoke, B, Marshall, N, McCartney, K, Morrison, FJ, O'Brien, M, Owen, MT, Payne, C, Phillips, D, Pianta, R, Randolph, SM, Robeson, WW, Spieker, S, Vandell, DL & Weinraub, M 2004, 'Does class size in first grade relate to children's academic and social performance or observed classroom processes?', Developmental Psychology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 651-664. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.5.651
Allhusen, Virginia ; Belsky, Jay ; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L. ; Bradley, Robert ; Brownell, Celia A. ; Burchinal, Margaret ; Campbell, Susan B. ; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison ; Cox, Martha ; Friedman, Sarah L. ; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn ; Houts, Renate M. ; Huston, Aletha ; Jaeger, Elizabeth ; Johnson, Deborah J. ; Kelly, Jean F. ; Knoke, Bonnie ; Marshall, Nancy ; McCartney, Kathleen ; Morrison, Frederick J. ; O'Brien, Marion ; Owen, Margaret Tresch ; Payne, Chris ; Phillips, Deborah ; Pianta, Robert ; Randolph, Suzanne M. ; Robeson, Wendy W. ; Spieker, Susan ; Vandell, Deborah Lowe ; Weinraub, Marsha. / Does class size in first grade relate to children's academic and social performance or observed classroom processes?. In: Developmental Psychology. 2004 ; Vol. 40, No. 5. pp. 651-664.
@article{59bed139cc604732908d2690c5e41124,
title = "Does class size in first grade relate to children's academic and social performance or observed classroom processes?",
abstract = "This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were somewhat less likely to be engaged. Teachers in smaller classes rated typical children in those classes as more socially skilled and as showing less externalizing behavior and reported more closeness toward them. Children in smaller classes performed better on literacy skills. Larger classrooms showed more group activities directed by the teacher, teachers and children interacted more often, and children were more often engaged. Lower class sizes were not of more benefit (or harm) as a function of the child's family income. First-grade class size in the range typical of present-day classrooms in the United States predicts classroom social and instructional processes as well as relative changes in social and literacy outcomes from kindergarten to first grade.",
author = "Virginia Allhusen and Jay Belsky and Booth-LaForce, {Cathryn L.} and Robert Bradley and Brownell, {Celia A.} and Margaret Burchinal and Campbell, {Susan B.} and Clarke-Stewart, {K. Alison} and Martha Cox and Friedman, {Sarah L.} and Kathryn Hirsh-Pasek and Houts, {Renate M.} and Aletha Huston and Elizabeth Jaeger and Johnson, {Deborah J.} and Kelly, {Jean F.} and Bonnie Knoke and Nancy Marshall and Kathleen McCartney and Morrison, {Frederick J.} and Marion O'Brien and Owen, {Margaret Tresch} and Chris Payne and Deborah Phillips and Robert Pianta and Randolph, {Suzanne M.} and Robeson, {Wendy W.} and Susan Spieker and Vandell, {Deborah Lowe} and Marsha Weinraub",
year = "2004",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1037/0012-1649.40.5.651",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "651--664",
journal = "Developmental Psychology",
issn = "0012-1649",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Does class size in first grade relate to children's academic and social performance or observed classroom processes?

AU - Allhusen, Virginia

AU - Belsky, Jay

AU - Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.

AU - Bradley, Robert

AU - Brownell, Celia A.

AU - Burchinal, Margaret

AU - Campbell, Susan B.

AU - Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

AU - Cox, Martha

AU - Friedman, Sarah L.

AU - Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

AU - Houts, Renate M.

AU - Huston, Aletha

AU - Jaeger, Elizabeth

AU - Johnson, Deborah J.

AU - Kelly, Jean F.

AU - Knoke, Bonnie

AU - Marshall, Nancy

AU - McCartney, Kathleen

AU - Morrison, Frederick J.

AU - O'Brien, Marion

AU - Owen, Margaret Tresch

AU - Payne, Chris

AU - Phillips, Deborah

AU - Pianta, Robert

AU - Randolph, Suzanne M.

AU - Robeson, Wendy W.

AU - Spieker, Susan

AU - Vandell, Deborah Lowe

AU - Weinraub, Marsha

PY - 2004/9

Y1 - 2004/9

N2 - This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were somewhat less likely to be engaged. Teachers in smaller classes rated typical children in those classes as more socially skilled and as showing less externalizing behavior and reported more closeness toward them. Children in smaller classes performed better on literacy skills. Larger classrooms showed more group activities directed by the teacher, teachers and children interacted more often, and children were more often engaged. Lower class sizes were not of more benefit (or harm) as a function of the child's family income. First-grade class size in the range typical of present-day classrooms in the United States predicts classroom social and instructional processes as well as relative changes in social and literacy outcomes from kindergarten to first grade.

AB - This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were somewhat less likely to be engaged. Teachers in smaller classes rated typical children in those classes as more socially skilled and as showing less externalizing behavior and reported more closeness toward them. Children in smaller classes performed better on literacy skills. Larger classrooms showed more group activities directed by the teacher, teachers and children interacted more often, and children were more often engaged. Lower class sizes were not of more benefit (or harm) as a function of the child's family income. First-grade class size in the range typical of present-day classrooms in the United States predicts classroom social and instructional processes as well as relative changes in social and literacy outcomes from kindergarten to first grade.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4444249055&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4444249055&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/0012-1649.40.5.651

DO - 10.1037/0012-1649.40.5.651

M3 - Article

C2 - 15355156

AN - SCOPUS:4444249055

VL - 40

SP - 651

EP - 664

JO - Developmental Psychology

JF - Developmental Psychology

SN - 0012-1649

IS - 5

ER -