Do zoos and aquariums promote attitude change in visitors? A critical evaluation of the american zoo and aquarium study

Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld, Randy Malamud, Nathan Nobis, Ronald Broglio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Scopus citations


Modern-day zoos and aquariums market themselves as places of education and conservation. A recent study conducted by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) (Falk et al., 2007) is being widely heralded as the first direct evidence that visits to zoos and aquariums produce long-term positive effects on people's attitudes toward other animals. In this paper, we address whether this conclusion is warranted by analyzing the study's methodological soundness. We conclude that Falk et al. (2007) contains at least six major threats to methodological validity that undermine the authors' conclusions. There remains no compelling evidence for the claim that zoos and aquariums promote attitude change, education, or interest in conservation in visitors, although further investigation of this possibility using methodologically sophisticated designs is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)126-138
Number of pages13
JournalSociety and Animals
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2010



  • Aquarium
  • Attitude
  • Conservation
  • Education
  • Marine park
  • Methodology
  • Validity
  • Zoo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)
  • Sociology and Political Science

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