Distribution and characteristics of Adirondack-class basalt as observed by Mini-TES in Gusev crater, Mars and its possible volcanic source

Victoria E. Hamilton, Steven Ruff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

We identified 104 unique rock targets belonging to the olivine-rich Adirondack class using Mini-TES data. Rare rocks on the West Spur of the Columbia Hills and on the plains east of the Hills also belong to this class. We present evidence that Adirondack-class basaltic lavas may have had their origin at Apollinaris Tholus. Linear modeling of Adirondack-class rock spectra shows only minor variations in mineralogy and the primary phases identified are consistent with olivine basalt having an average olivine composition of ∼Fo 45. We used factor analysis and target transformation to identify variability within a single class of rocks for the first time, and we find that olivine abundance varies independently of a basaltic matrix. A spectral component previously attributed to downwelling radiance is proposed here to be attributable to optically thin dust on rocks, which has a greater effect on Mini-TES spectra than previously recognized, but can explain the sloping continuum observed in Adirondack-class rock spectra as well as the apparent distortion of an olivine absorption. Spectral mixing is not completely linear, leading to the overestimation of sulfate and olivine fractions and the underestimation of plagioclase feldspar, although linear mixing appears to successfully replicate the majority of the observed signal. Published TES spectra of low albedo, low dust cover, olivine-bearing materials do not exhibit the spectral telltales of non-linear behavior, probably because orbital spectra represent mostly mobile regolith that has not accumulated a sufficient dust cover over ∼3×6km areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)917-949
Number of pages33
JournalIcarus
Volume218
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2012

Keywords

  • Mars, srurface
  • Mineralogy
  • Spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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