We examine sources and dynamics of discontinuous changes in discrete multi‐level hierarchical ecological‐economic systems. We hypothesize the anagenetic moment, the creation of a new level of hierarchy, as arising from variable entrainment at some level. Bottom‐up as well as top‐down dynamics are studied and competing theories of the sources of such discontinuities are reviewed. Implications for the analysis of complex ecological‐economic systems are considered depending on whether they are characterized by single hierarchy, bi‐hierarchy, or matrix hierarchy relationships.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Business, Management and Accounting(all)