Direct Teaching, Strategy Instruction, and Strategy Instruction With Explicit Self-Regulation: Effects on the Composition Skills and Self-Efficacy of Students With Learning Disabilities

Richard J. Sawyer, Steve Graham, Karen R. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

141 Scopus citations


This study extends previous research on components of effective strategy instruction operationalized in an approach referred to as self-regulated strategy development (SRSD). Comparisons were made among learning-disabled students in 4 conditions (SRSD, SRSD without goal setting and self-monitoring, direct teaching, and practice control) at posttest, generalization, and 2 maintenance probes. Normally achieving (NA) peers constituted a social validation condition. Full SRSD resulted in significantly greater schematic structure scores at generalization as compared with the other instructional conditions. At posttest, both SRSD conditions resulted in significantly greater schematic structure scores as compared with the practice control condition. Comparisons with NA peers indicated that all instructional conditions had a meaningful effect. No differences among conditions were found for self-efficacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)340-352
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1992


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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