This article presents data from a number of areas of psychology that have dealt with the issue of whether positive and negative affects are independent - the bivariate view - or whether they operate inversely from each other-the unidimensional, bipolar view. Both models have extensive empirical support. A more integrative view, the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), specifies conditions under which both bivariate and bipolar models are valid. It is tailored to analyzing both affect systems functioning concurrently. The DMA is reviewed and then extended to show how 3 major areas of research can begin to incorporate the more integrative framework of analyzing co-occurring types of affect.
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