Differential inhibition of the Fas- and granule-mediated cytolysis pathways by the orthopoxvirus cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2 and SPI-1 protein

Joanne L. Macen, Rosemary S. Garner, Pierre Y. Musy, Michael A. Brooks, Peter C. Turner, Richard W. Moyer, Grant Mcfadden, R. Chris Bleackley

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93 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are important effectors of antiviral immunity, and they induce target cell death either by secretion of cytoplasmic granules containing perforin and granzymes or by signaling through the Fas cell surface antigen. Although it is not known whether the granule-mediated and Fas-mediated cytolytic mechanisms share common components, proteinase activity has been implicated as an important feature of both pathways. The orthopoxviruses cowpox virus and rabbitpox virus each encode three members of the serpin family of proteinase inhibitors, designated SPI-1, SPI-2, and SPI- 3. Of these, SPI-2 (also referred to as cytokine response modifier A in cowpox virus) has been shown to inhibit the proteolytic activity of both members of the interleukin 1β converting enzyme family and granzyme B. We report here that cells infected with cowpox or rabbitpox viruses exhibit resistance to cytolysis by either cytolytic mechanism. Whereas mutation of the cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2 gene was necessary to relieve inhibition of Fas-mediated cytolysis, in some cell types mutation of SPI-1, in addition to cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2, was necessary to completely abrogate inhibition. In contrast, viral inhibition of granule- mediated killing was unaffected by mutation of cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2 alone, and it was relieved only when both the cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2 and SPI-1 genes were inactivated. These results suggest that an interleukin 1β converting enzyme-like enzymatic activity is involved in SPI-1 killing mechanisms and indicate that two vital proteins, SPI-1 and cytokine response modifier A/SPI-2, are necessary to inhibit both cytolysis pathways.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9108-9113
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume93
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 20 1996

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