Household livelihood strategies affect grassland ecosystem services and the herder's well-being. Understanding different household livelihood strategies and influencing factors is crucial for sustainable development in pastoral areas. We surveyed 241 households in the typical grassland region of Inner Mongolia to classify the different types of household livelihood strategies using income-based cluster analysis and to identify the major influencing factors of household livelihood strategies with partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Our study has several findings. First, according to household income sources, there are five types of household livelihood strategies in this region, including breeding only small livestock (S), breeding mainly small livestock (SL), breeding mainly large livestock (LS), breeding only large livestock (L), and not breeding livestock (N), with the S strategy as the most dominant household livelihood strategy in this region. Second, among the five types of household livelihood strategies, the LS strategy had the highest household income (323,200 Chinese yuans) while the N strategy had the lowest household income (68,540 Chinese yuans). Third, among the five types of livelihood capitals, manufactured capital and natural capital had more substantial influences on household livelihood strategies. Manufactured capital directly influenced household livelihood strategies, while natural capital affected household livelihood strategies either directly or indirectly through manufactured capital. Our results suggest that the LS strategy would be the most economically profitable among the five household livelihood strategies in the typical grassland region of Inner Mongolia.
- Cluster analysis
- Household livelihood strategies
- Livelihood capitals
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law