Dietary quality and bisphenols: trends in bisphenol A, F, and S exposure in relation to the Healthy Eating Index using representative data from the NHANES 2007-2016

Irene Van Woerden, Devon C. Payne-Sturges, Corrie M. Whisner, Meg Bruening

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Given policy regulations restricting bisphenol A (BPA) in food-related products, and consumer concerns about adverse health effects, newer bisphenols such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been developed. Exposure to BPA has been linked to dietary behaviors and poor health outcomes. Objectives: We sought to examine how the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and its 13 subgroups, the healthy American diet, the Mediterranean diet, the vegetarian diet, and other dietary quality behaviors are related to BPA and the newer substitutes in a representative sample of US adults. Methods: Dietary intakes from the NHANES were used to determine dietary scores. Osmolality-adjusted urinary BPA (n = 6418) and BPF and BPS (n = 2520) concentrations were tested for their association with dietary intake in models that adjusted for sociodemographics. Results: Compared with low scores, high scores for total HEI and the American, Mediterranean, and vegetarian diets were associated with lower odds of high BPA concentration (OR: 0.65, 0.60, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively). Of the HEI subgroups, lower BPA concentration was associated with high total fruit (OR: 0.61; 99.95% CI: 0.42, 0.89), whole fruit (OR: 0.59; 99.95% CI: 0.41, 0.86), and whole grain (OR: 0.68; 99.95% CI: 0.40, 0.94) intake, when compared with low intakes. Compared with low intakes, high intakes of plain and tap water were associated with lower odds of high BPA concentration (OR: 0.65; 99.95% CI: 0.47, 0.91 and OR: 0.70; 99.95% CI: 0.50, 0.99, respectively). A perception of high, compared with low, dietary quality was also associated with lower odds of high BPA concentration (OR: 0.72; 99.95% CI: 0.53, 0.98). Conclusions: Healthier dietary quality and several HEI subgroups were related to lower urinary BPA concentrations; no significant (P ≤ 0.0005) findings were observed for BPF and BPS. The association between bisphenol substitutes and dietary quality should continue to be monitored as bisphenol substitutes continue to increase in the food system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)669-682
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume114
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2021

Keywords

  • bisphenol
  • BPA
  • BPF
  • BPS
  • diet
  • Healthy Eating Index
  • HEI
  • NHANES

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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