The authors examined the influence of different amounts of visual information when children 4 (CH4), 6 (CH6), and 8 (CH8) years of age, and adults (n = 12 in each group) performed a steady-state bimanual circle-drawing coordination task at self-selected speeds. All participants maintained in-phase coordination, but different strategies for maintaining the pattern emerged. A predictable relationship between variability and age was not observed, in that the CH8 group was not necessarily more consistent than the CH6 and CH4 groups. The authors conclude that children are transitioning from dependence on kinesthetic feedback to reliance on visual feedback around age 8, as suggested by L. Hay, C. Bard, M. Fleury, and N. Teasdale (1991; L. Hay, M. Fleury, C. Bard, & N. Teasdale, 1994; L. Hay & C. Redon, 1997), and that future studies are needed to further explore visual and kinesthetic feedback as potential control parameters during coordination tasks in developing children.
- Bimanual coordination
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Cognitive Neuroscience