Development of recombinant Salmonellae expressing hybrid hepatitis B virus core particles as candidate oral vaccines.

F. Schödel, S. M. Kelly, D. Peterson, D. Milich, J. Hughes, S. Tinge, R. Wirtz, R. Curtiss

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


This paper provides a review on the development of hepatitis core antigen as a vaccine carrier moiety and the use of recombinant Salmonella vaccine strains expressing hybrid HBcAg particles as live oral vaccines. Salmonella spp. can be attenuated by defined genetic means so that they become avirulent, yet preserve invasiveness after oral uptake. Oral immunization of mice with such avirulent candidate Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strains elicited serum antibody responses against a limited number of bacterial antigens. A highly immunogenic viral nucleocapsid antigen, hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) that can be expressed in prokaryotes was used as a carrier moiety for B-cell epitopes. Insertion sites with an enhanced immunogenicity for the carried epitopes were defined using HBV envelope protein virus neutralizing epitopes. An internal insertion site in HBcAg was found that drastically enhanced the immunogenicity of the foreign (pre-S1) epitope while reducing the immunogenicity of the carrier protein. Internally fused HBc/pre-S hybrid particles were expressed in Salmonella typhimurium and S. typhi vaccine strains. A single oral immunization of mice with such live recombinant S. typhimurium strains elicited a high titred serum anti-pre-S1 IgG response. Similarly, circumsporozoite repeat epitopes of three different malaria parasites were expressed as HBcAg/CS hybrids in recombinant S. spp. and were found to be highly immunogenic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-158
Number of pages8
JournalDevelopments in biological standardization
StatePublished - 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Drug Discovery
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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