The current study modeled the simultaneous development of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) exploration and resolution for Latino adolescents (n=323, Mage at T1=15.31, SDage=.76; 49.5% female) from 9th to 12th grade. Three theoretically supported ERI trajectories emerged, including (1) high and significantly increasing exploration and resolution (i.e., "Increasingly Achieved"), (2) low and stable exploration and resolution (i.e., "Consistently Diffused"), and (3) low exploration and moderate resolution that were both stable over time (i.e., "Consistently Foreclosed"). Increasingly achieved was the most common trajectory. High levels of family ethnic socialization promoted membership into this trajectory class (relative to others) most strongly. Implications for advancing understandings of ERI development and the role of family ethnic socialization among Latino youth, as well as the focus and timing of possible intervention efforts, are discussed.
- Ethnic-racial identity
- Family ethnic socialization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology