Line leakage of oil and natural gas systems can result in significant financial and environmental consequences. Often, small leaks lead to ruptures in the pipeline that result in product escaping into the surrounding soil. Oil product can taint water supplies by migrating into aquifers, while natural gas leaks are susceptible to catastrophic explosions. A joint academic-industry research initiative funded by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) has lead to the development and refinement of a freeswimming device capable of detecting small leaks in oil product and natural gas pipelines. The SmartBall® swims through a pipeline being assessed and produces results at significantly reduced cost to the end user compared to current leak detection methods. GIS based above ground loggers that are GPS synchronized capture low frequency acoustic signatures and digitally log the passage of the SmartBall® through a pipeline. This paper presents the development, laboratory and field validation testing of the SmartBall® for both oil and natural gas applications with discussion of demonstrated case studies.