Developing a Large-Scale Cryogenic System for the Simultaneous Operation of Three Detector Focal Planes in TolTEC, A New Multichroic Imaging Polarimeter

N. S. DeNigris, G. W. Wilson, M. E. Eiben, E. Lunde, P. Mauskopf, R. Contente

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

TolTEC is an upcoming millimeter-wave imaging polarimeter designed to fill the focal plane of the 50-m-diameter Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). Combined with the LMT, TolTEC will offer high-angular-resolution (5′ ′–10′ ′) simultaneous, polarization-sensitive observations in three wavelength bands: 1.1, 1.4, and 2.0 mm. Additionally, TolTEC will feature mapping speeds greater than 2deg2/mJy2/h, thus enabling wider surveys of large-scale structure, galaxy evolution, and star formation. These improvements are only possible through the integration of approximately 7000 low-noise, high-responsivity superconducting Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors. Utilizing three focal planes of detector arrays requires the design, fabrication, and characterization of a unique, large-scale cryogenic system. Based on thermal models and expected photon loading, the focal planes must have a base operational temperature below 150 mK. To achieve this base temperature, TolTEC utilizes two cryocoolers, a Cryomech pulse tube cooler and an Oxford Instruments dilution refrigerator, to establish four thermal stages: 45 K, 4 K, 1 K, and 100 mK. During the design phase, we developed an object-oriented Python code to model the heat loading on each stage as well as the thermal gradients throughout the system. This model has allowed us to improve thermal gradients in the system as well as locate areas of poor thermal conductivity prior to ending a cooldown. The results of our model versus measurements from our cooldowns will be presented along with a detailed overview of TolTEC’s cryogenic system. We anticipate TolTEC to be commissioned at the LMT by Spring 2020.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)789-797
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Low Temperature Physics
Volume199
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2020

Keywords

  • Cryogenics
  • KIDs
  • TolTEC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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