Determinants of single family residential water use across scales in four western US cities

Heejun Chang, Matthew Ryan Bonnette, Philip Stoker, Brittany Crow-Miller, Elizabeth Wentz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A growing body of literature examines urban water sustainability with increasing evidence that locally-based physical and social spatial interactions contribute to water use. These studies however are based on single-city analysis and often fail to consider whether these interactions occur more generally. We examine a multi-city comparison using a common set of spatially-explicit water, socioeconomic, and biophysical data. We investigate the relative importance of variables for explaining the variations of single family residential (SFR) water uses at Census Block Group (CBG) and Census Tract (CT) scales in four representative western US cities – Austin, Phoenix, Portland, and Salt Lake City, - which cover a wide range of climate and development density. We used both ordinary least squares regression and spatial error regression models to identify the influence of spatial dependence on water use patterns. Our results show that older downtown areas show lower water use than newer suburban areas in all four cities. Tax assessed value and building age are the main determinants of SFR water use across the four cities regardless of the scale. Impervious surface area becomes an important variable for summer water use in all cities, and it is important in all seasons for arid environments such as Phoenix. CT level analysis shows better model predictability than CBG analysis. In all cities, seasons, and spatial scales, spatial error regression models better explain the variations of SFR water use. Such a spatially-varying relationship of urban water consumption provides additional evidence for the need to integrate urban land use planning and municipal water planning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)451-464
Number of pages14
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume596-597
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2017

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water use
Water
census
water planning
suburban area
arid environment
family
city
land use planning
Planning
surface area
sustainability
Taxation
Land use
Sustainable development
climate
summer
analysis

Keywords

  • Single family residential water use
  • Spatial planning
  • Spatial regression
  • Urban water use
  • Western US

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Determinants of single family residential water use across scales in four western US cities. / Chang, Heejun; Bonnette, Matthew Ryan; Stoker, Philip; Crow-Miller, Brittany; Wentz, Elizabeth.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 596-597, 15.10.2017, p. 451-464.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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