Detection of very long-chain hydrocarbons by laser mass spectrometry reveals novel species-, sex-, and age-dependent differences in the cuticular profiles of three Nasonia species

Tanja Bien, Jürgen Gadau, Andreas Schnapp, Joanne Y. Yew, Christian Sievert, Klaus Dreisewerd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) are key components of chemical communication in many insects. The parasitoid jewel wasps from the genus Nasonia use their CHC profile as sex pheromone and for species recognition. The standard analytical tool to analyze CHC is gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). This method reliably identifies short- to long-chain alkanes and alkenes, but CHC with more than 40 carbon atoms are usually not detected. Here, we applied two laser mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, namely direct laser desorption/ionization (d)LDI and silver-assisted (Ag-)LDI MS, respectively, to analyze CHC profiles of N. vitripennis, N. giraulti, and N. longicornis directly from the cuticle or extracts. Furthermore, we applied direct analysis in real-time (DART) MS as another orthogonal technique for extracts. The three methods corroborated previous results based on GC/MS, i.e., the production of CHC with carbon numbers between C25 and C40. However, we discovered a novel series of long-chain CHC ranging from C41 to C51/C52. Additionally, several previously unreported singly and doubly unsaturated alkenes in the C31-C39 range were found. Use of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the composition of the newly discovered CHC varies significantly between species, sex, and age of the animals. Our study adds to the growing literature on the presence of very long-chain CHC in insects and hints at putative roles in insect communication. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2981-2993
Number of pages13
JournalAnalytical and bioanalytical chemistry
Volume411
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - May 19 2019

Keywords

  • DART
  • Laser mass spectrometry
  • Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons
  • Nasonia
  • Principal component analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry

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