Designing control charts using an empirical reference distribution

Thomas R. Willemain, George C. Runger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


We address a problem of increasing practical interest: control charting in the absence of an assumed normal distribution. We analyze the sampling uncertainties inherent in selecting control limits from the empirical distribution of a large sample of whatever statistic is to be charted. We then relate the selections of the number of preliminary observations and control limits to on-target and off-target performance measures. The methodology is nonparametric, requiring only that the plotted statistics be independent and come from the same distribution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-38
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Quality Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • Average Run Length
  • Distribution-Free Procedures
  • Order Statistics
  • Shewhart Control Charts
  • Statistical Process Control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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