Design and Strategy for the Deployment of Energy Storage Systems in a Distribution Feeder With Penetration of Renewable Resources

Adarsh Nagarajan, Raja Ayyanar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Integration of distributed energy resources has the potential to impact the operation of the distribution systems by affecting the equipment reliability and customer power quality. The stochastic nature of the distributed energy resources have been accommodated using the energy storage systems along with providing economical benefits to the distribution systems. This paper provides a generalized framework for strategic deployment of a lithium-ion-based energy storage system to increase the benefits in a distribution feeder. Convex optimization is specifically developed to exploit the energy price arbitrage along the optimization time horizon. A significant amount of work has been performed in this paper for detailed characterization of the life cycle costs of the battery energy storage system (BESS). A novel approach for effective utilization of the energy storage system to mitigate the intermittent nature of the photovoltaic (PV) generation has been presented in this paper. The objectives include reduction of the substation transformer losses, reduction of the life cycle cost of the battery storage system, and accommodate PV variability. A convex optimization with a quadratic objective has been formulated to calculate the charge/discharge schedule of the energy storage system. A field validated model of the distribution feeder in OpenDSS has been used to determine the impact of optimal scheduling of the BESS on the substation transformer losses and the feeder head voltage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6855329
Pages (from-to)1085-1092
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


  • Convex optimization
  • energy storage
  • peak shaving
  • quasi-static analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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