Design and performance of dual-polarization lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter-wave polarimetry

H. McCarrick, G. Jones, B. R. Johnson, M. H. Abitbol, P. A.R. Ade, S. Bryan, P. Day, T. Essinger-Hileman, D. Flanigan, H. G. Leduc, M. Limon, Philip Mauskopf, A. Miller, C. Tucker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims. Lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) are an attractive technology for millimeter-wave observations that require large arrays of extremely low-noise detectors. We designed, fabricated and characterized 64-element (128 LEKID) arrays of horn-coupled, dual-polarization LEKIDs optimized for ground-based CMB polarimetry. Our devices are sensitive to two orthogonal polarizations in a single spectral band centered on 150 GHz with Δν/ν = 0.2. The 65 × 65 mm square arrays are designed to be tiled into the focal plane of an optical system. We demonstrate the viability of these dual-polarization LEKIDs with laboratory measurements. Methods. The LEKID modules are tested with an FPGA-based readout system in a sub-kelvin cryostat that uses a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The devices are characterized using a blackbody and a millimeter-wave source. The polarization properties are measured with a cryogenic stepped half-wave plate. We measure the resonator parameters and the detector sensitivity, noise spectrum, dynamic range, and polarization response. Results. The resonators have internal quality factors approaching 1 × 106. The detectors have uniform response between orthogonal polarizations and a large dynamic range. The detectors are photon-noise limited above 1 pW of absorbed power. The noise-equivalent temperatures under a 3.4 K blackbody load are <100 μK √s. The polarization fractions of detectors sensitive to orthogonal polarizations are >80%. The entire array is multiplexed on a single readout line, demonstrating a multiplexing factor of 128. The array and readout meet the requirements for 4 arrays to be read out simultaneously for a multiplexing factor of 512. Conclusions. This laboratory study demonstrates the first dual-polarization LEKID array optimized specifically for CMB polarimetry and shows the readiness of the detectors for on-sky observations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA45
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume610
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018

Fingerprint

polarimetry
inductance
millimeter waves
polarization
kinetics
detectors
readout
multiplexing
dynamic range
detector
resonators
demagnetization
refrigerators
noise spectra
cryostats
spectral bands
viability
low noise
cryogenics
sky

Keywords

  • Cosmic background radiation
  • Instrumentation: detectors
  • Instrumentation: polarimeters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Design and performance of dual-polarization lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter-wave polarimetry. / McCarrick, H.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Abitbol, M. H.; Ade, P. A.R.; Bryan, S.; Day, P.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Flanigan, D.; Leduc, H. G.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, Philip; Miller, A.; Tucker, C.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 610, A45, 01.02.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McCarrick, H, Jones, G, Johnson, BR, Abitbol, MH, Ade, PAR, Bryan, S, Day, P, Essinger-Hileman, T, Flanigan, D, Leduc, HG, Limon, M, Mauskopf, P, Miller, A & Tucker, C 2018, 'Design and performance of dual-polarization lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter-wave polarimetry', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 610, A45. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201732044
McCarrick, H. ; Jones, G. ; Johnson, B. R. ; Abitbol, M. H. ; Ade, P. A.R. ; Bryan, S. ; Day, P. ; Essinger-Hileman, T. ; Flanigan, D. ; Leduc, H. G. ; Limon, M. ; Mauskopf, Philip ; Miller, A. ; Tucker, C. / Design and performance of dual-polarization lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter-wave polarimetry. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2018 ; Vol. 610.
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abstract = "Aims. Lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) are an attractive technology for millimeter-wave observations that require large arrays of extremely low-noise detectors. We designed, fabricated and characterized 64-element (128 LEKID) arrays of horn-coupled, dual-polarization LEKIDs optimized for ground-based CMB polarimetry. Our devices are sensitive to two orthogonal polarizations in a single spectral band centered on 150 GHz with Δν/ν = 0.2. The 65 × 65 mm square arrays are designed to be tiled into the focal plane of an optical system. We demonstrate the viability of these dual-polarization LEKIDs with laboratory measurements. Methods. The LEKID modules are tested with an FPGA-based readout system in a sub-kelvin cryostat that uses a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The devices are characterized using a blackbody and a millimeter-wave source. The polarization properties are measured with a cryogenic stepped half-wave plate. We measure the resonator parameters and the detector sensitivity, noise spectrum, dynamic range, and polarization response. Results. The resonators have internal quality factors approaching 1 × 106. The detectors have uniform response between orthogonal polarizations and a large dynamic range. The detectors are photon-noise limited above 1 pW of absorbed power. The noise-equivalent temperatures under a 3.4 K blackbody load are <100 μK √s. The polarization fractions of detectors sensitive to orthogonal polarizations are >80{\%}. The entire array is multiplexed on a single readout line, demonstrating a multiplexing factor of 128. The array and readout meet the requirements for 4 arrays to be read out simultaneously for a multiplexing factor of 512. Conclusions. This laboratory study demonstrates the first dual-polarization LEKID array optimized specifically for CMB polarimetry and shows the readiness of the detectors for on-sky observations.",
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AU - Johnson, B. R.

AU - Abitbol, M. H.

AU - Ade, P. A.R.

AU - Bryan, S.

AU - Day, P.

AU - Essinger-Hileman, T.

AU - Flanigan, D.

AU - Leduc, H. G.

AU - Limon, M.

AU - Mauskopf, Philip

AU - Miller, A.

AU - Tucker, C.

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N2 - Aims. Lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) are an attractive technology for millimeter-wave observations that require large arrays of extremely low-noise detectors. We designed, fabricated and characterized 64-element (128 LEKID) arrays of horn-coupled, dual-polarization LEKIDs optimized for ground-based CMB polarimetry. Our devices are sensitive to two orthogonal polarizations in a single spectral band centered on 150 GHz with Δν/ν = 0.2. The 65 × 65 mm square arrays are designed to be tiled into the focal plane of an optical system. We demonstrate the viability of these dual-polarization LEKIDs with laboratory measurements. Methods. The LEKID modules are tested with an FPGA-based readout system in a sub-kelvin cryostat that uses a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The devices are characterized using a blackbody and a millimeter-wave source. The polarization properties are measured with a cryogenic stepped half-wave plate. We measure the resonator parameters and the detector sensitivity, noise spectrum, dynamic range, and polarization response. Results. The resonators have internal quality factors approaching 1 × 106. The detectors have uniform response between orthogonal polarizations and a large dynamic range. The detectors are photon-noise limited above 1 pW of absorbed power. The noise-equivalent temperatures under a 3.4 K blackbody load are <100 μK √s. The polarization fractions of detectors sensitive to orthogonal polarizations are >80%. The entire array is multiplexed on a single readout line, demonstrating a multiplexing factor of 128. The array and readout meet the requirements for 4 arrays to be read out simultaneously for a multiplexing factor of 512. Conclusions. This laboratory study demonstrates the first dual-polarization LEKID array optimized specifically for CMB polarimetry and shows the readiness of the detectors for on-sky observations.

AB - Aims. Lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) are an attractive technology for millimeter-wave observations that require large arrays of extremely low-noise detectors. We designed, fabricated and characterized 64-element (128 LEKID) arrays of horn-coupled, dual-polarization LEKIDs optimized for ground-based CMB polarimetry. Our devices are sensitive to two orthogonal polarizations in a single spectral band centered on 150 GHz with Δν/ν = 0.2. The 65 × 65 mm square arrays are designed to be tiled into the focal plane of an optical system. We demonstrate the viability of these dual-polarization LEKIDs with laboratory measurements. Methods. The LEKID modules are tested with an FPGA-based readout system in a sub-kelvin cryostat that uses a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The devices are characterized using a blackbody and a millimeter-wave source. The polarization properties are measured with a cryogenic stepped half-wave plate. We measure the resonator parameters and the detector sensitivity, noise spectrum, dynamic range, and polarization response. Results. The resonators have internal quality factors approaching 1 × 106. The detectors have uniform response between orthogonal polarizations and a large dynamic range. The detectors are photon-noise limited above 1 pW of absorbed power. The noise-equivalent temperatures under a 3.4 K blackbody load are <100 μK √s. The polarization fractions of detectors sensitive to orthogonal polarizations are >80%. The entire array is multiplexed on a single readout line, demonstrating a multiplexing factor of 128. The array and readout meet the requirements for 4 arrays to be read out simultaneously for a multiplexing factor of 512. Conclusions. This laboratory study demonstrates the first dual-polarization LEKID array optimized specifically for CMB polarimetry and shows the readiness of the detectors for on-sky observations.

KW - Cosmic background radiation

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KW - Instrumentation: polarimeters

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